Projects by members > J. Miller

Stanley A Meyer Micro Magnetic Particles

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jim miller:
"Extrusion Die for Heated Thermoplastic Carrier of Aligned Ferromagnetic Material

1. Obtain sufficient 304 stainless tubing with 1/16 diameter
2. Cut into 15 cm lengths      Construction Note Use a pipe tubing cutter to make an indented ring on the tube , then snap
3. Use a drill or bolt gauge to estimate how many can be  put into a larger tube which is the heated and magnetized
extrusion die
4. If you are mathematically inclined use circle packing formula to determine the number of  circles with the
outside diameter of the stainless tubes that can fit into the cross-sectional area of the heating tube.

Example:   Pi * ( R)squared  = A   3.1416  *  (0.0625) squared  = approx 0.0123 sq in
This represents the cross sectional area of 1/16" OD stainless pipe

Now for the heated collar 3/4" copper tubing  is a good choice
Look up the cross-sectional area for the tubing  selected in a standard plumbing guide

Using standard circle packing formulas, how many tubes can fit  through a one square inch area?

Once you have that, multiply by the inside cross-sectional area of the 3/4 heating tube

See Toth      1/6 *  pi *  sqrt 3    0.906

Bundle and tape together at the in a hexagonal honeycomb. dip the ends into wax or plastidip to prevent
expoxy cement from entering the stainless  tubes Use epoxy to cement the bundled stainless tubes
into the copper tube

Grind the tubes flat on  one end of the nozzle and  sweat solder a threaded fitting to the other end
which will be attached to the hot glue reservoir."

Extrusion Die and Nozzle Design and Material Calculations

Area of nozzle exit
Although it is possible to purchase  or fabricate square or rectangular shaped  "tubing", for the purposes of this construction
only round tubing or pipe will be considered.

For example, the cross-sectional area of a circular pipe with a one inch inside diameter is given by
squaring the radius and multiplying by Pi    Thus  0.5 times 0.5 times Pi equals a 0.785 square inch cross-section.

Fortunately there are a number of plumbing handbooks that have a lot of data on various types of copper pipes

Here's several nice  copper tubing  resources:
https://www.copper.org/applications/plumbing/cth/

https://pages.mtu.edu/~fmorriso/cm3215/copper_tube_handbook.pdf

Copper pipes come in the types  K,L and M  which have the same outside diameters but different wall thickness which
means a different internal  diameter and thus different inside cross-sectional area.

In this construction type M 3/4 inch od pipe was used  It has a cross-sectional area of  0.517 square inches

Now let's think bout the number of orifices that will be used in the nozzle construction.. The application of
circle packing theory may give some insight

For a given rectangular area,  circles that area arranged in a honeycomb or  hexagonal stacking will have the

greatest number of circles per square inch  See Wikipedia  article   circle packing and more specifically circle packing in a circle.

http://hydra.nat.uni-magdeburg.de/packing/cci/