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Stanley A Meyer EPG Design Concepts ionizationx
« on: November 05, 2021, 23:19:46 pm »
Stanley A Meyer has provided a number of design factors affecting output when designing
particle generators  (EPG):
 
1. Number of pickup coils
2 Number of  turns per coil
3. Length of tubes
4. Velocity of gas
5. Strength of flux density


Basic information on the Electrical Particle Generators comes from the followings sources:

1. Stan Meyer Dealership Sales Manuals ( First Second and Third Editions)
2. High Resolution Photographs of EPGs by Don Gabel
3  Yahoo Stan Meyer  Interest Group                                 
4. Index to Electrical Particle Generator. WFC Memo 418     Posted  at Ionizationx
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1.Number of Coils

When designing an Electrical Particle Generator ( EPG), the number of turns, number of coils, and the method on connecting  can be varied depending upon the desired output in terms of amps and volts.

For the number of   pick-up coils examination of the high resolution images published by Don Gabel  (see index pdf at Ionizationx ) visual inspection provide the needed information.

I believe the following is a correct number for the various versions of EPGs posted by Gabel

      Description            3 channel Coils     4 channel Coils    Total Coils           
       
      Mechanical Drive EPG              57                       19                           76
                                                                                     
      Magnetic Gas Accelerator          28                       29                           57
                                                   
      Photon Gas Accelerator               ?                          ?                             ?                                                                                          .
      Magnetic Spin Accelerator         71                         10                          81                                                                                         

      Coil 1.25 cup Coil Assembly      82                           0                         82
                                                                             
      Multi-tier Mag Gas Plasma          3                       12000 turns per tier         36000 total
   
Examination of the images provides  a value for the various numbers and types of coils                                         
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2.The Number of Turns per Coil    (N)                                                                                                                                                                                                     

         The number of turns per coil can be estimated by application of circle packing theory. Because high resolution photographs of the electrical particle generators exist, it is possible to estimate the  number of turns per coil by the following means:    A program such as Screen-caliper or Adobe Photoshop can measure distance or provide pixel counts and in this manner determine the size of objects in a picture.  It was determined that the diameter of the wire used to winds the pick-up coils was 22 gauge  wire or  0.024  inch diameter AWG. Thus if the number of visible turns per coil can be determined and an estimate of the length of the coil can be made.

Because the outside diameter of the tubing used in the spiraled core is known (0.5 inches) , the depth or thickness of the coil can be estimated averaging the results from a sampling of coils may be more reliable estimate.

If the cross section area of "winding window" is calculated and the wire gauge known,
 circle packing theory allows estimates of the number of turns per coil  (N)  to be made.

Empirical method

To use the empirical method , bind together 3 sections of copper tubing laid side by side and to physically wrap a coil 'of
suitable length and winding depth. Adding complexity of the problem of the style or type of winding used( i.e. hexagonal
rectangular or random) One can wind more turns on a bobbin if the winding is hexagonal and less if its random because of a larger air space between adjacent winds.
3.Length of Coils  (L)
 
The length of the pickup coils is considered to be the linear distance of the core that is occupied by each of the  pickup windings.

Methods of  calculation

1.Approximate method
 
One method would be to determine the circumference of the spiraled core  and divide by the number of observed pickup coils. So let's say as an example, that the  diameter of the spiraled tubing is about 16 inches yielding a circumference of about 51 inches. 
Now suppose you counted 25 pickup coils, then 51 divided by 25 would be about 2 inches long

2. Improved method

Now in practice, the length of the coils is more closely approximated by accounting for the length of spiral occupied by dividers and unwrapped length of unwound core. Because the length of the pickup coil (L)will be used in later inductance calculations it is important to obtain a good estimate of its value.

3 Wire gauge method

Fortunately, the gauge of the wire is known with some precision 
Also the number of visible windings times the diameter of the wire can also be used as a cross-check for the length  measurement of the coils.

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An intrinsic portion of the Stanley Meyer technology had inductors, chokes and coils as important components of devices in the VIC,EPG and other printed circuit boards

Many of Stanley Meyer's patents and publications provide diagrams provide the general description or have live drawings that lack  exact component values of the resistors, capacitors , coils and chokes. Fortunately the high resolution photographs from the L3 storage unit and by Don Gabel, The Orion Project and others allow for many printed circuits to be closely  reconstructed.  The following article is related to the photogrammetric analysis of coils and inductors.

The values of the capacitors and resistors is much more straightforward using programs that match color code bands on resistors with values and  OCR image data files input cross-matched with component  files based on supplier catalog scans.
 
Application 

METHOD 1. Determine Length of bobbin, thickness or depth of winding,/the wire gauge and method of winding
   
The diameter of the outermost EPG channel or loop can be estimated.at  about 17 inches
Therefore the outer circumference can be estimated at  17 x Pi inches
By dividing the circumference by the observed number of coils an estimated length of each coil can be made

A further refinement in precision can be made by subtraction of  the total length  L occupied by coil spacers.
So in the case where you count, let's say as way of example, 59 coils and 60 coil end spacers, each winding is 1/59th of the circumference of 53.4 inches or calculated at about 0.905 inches long.

METHOD 2.

Because of  the high resolution photographs available, estimates the length of  a coil can be made directly by use of the measuring tools in Adobe  Photoshop (r)or Screen Caliper(r) Using a known measurement such as the outside diameter of tubing i.e.. (0.500 inches) in conjunction with a screen distance tool in Photoshop(r) or another program such as Screen Caliper(r) the length of the coil can be determined with precision.

THICKNESS OF COIL WINDINGS

Since the outside diameter of the core channel is known,  an estimate of the thickness of depth of winding may be obtained by using  photogrammetric methods.
The total thickness or height of the wound coil is first measured. Then the core diameter is then subtracted.

So now we have what is call a winding window with height H and length L
.
H TIMES L = A   the area of the winding window. Think of it as a cross-sectional view of
the coil windings with the ends of each wire being viewed.

Something like this:

IIOOOOOOOOOOOOII
IIOOOOOOOOOOOOII
IIOOOOOOOOOOOOII

--representing 3 layers of wire with 12 wraps (the II symbolizing the  coil dividers)3 layers of wire by 12 wires wide or 36 turns or wraps of wire around a bobbin.

IIooooooooooooooooooII
IIooooooooooooooooooII
HooooooooooooooooooII

In this example, a thinner wire could be wound 18 times on the same length of bobbin. So the thinner the wire, the greater the number of winds per layer. Also the number of layers would be greater. with thinner wire.
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3. NUMBER OF WINDS

Since the gauge of  the wire can be estimated with a good amount of precision ,the use of circle packing theory (see wiki) theory can be used to determine thenumber of turns that can fit through this winding window( Area equals Height times length.

One factor that helps, is that wires come in standard  thicknesses or diameters For convenience the AWG  (American Wire Gauge) is used in electrical and electronic work, Electrical wiring in the U.S. is often 10,12  or 14 AWG
Electronic work is often  uses 18,22, or 30  AWG gauge wire. Whatever the reason the smaller the AWG number, the thicker or larger the diameter of wire!!  (Similar to the sizing scheme of buckshot.)
.
The reason this helps in photogrammetry, is that the gauges are discrete values

AWG      Diameter in inches           AWG     Diameter in Inches
10           .1019                                 20           .0320
12           .0808                                 22           .0253
14           .0641                                 24           .0201
16           .0508                                 26           .0159
18           .0403                                 28           .0126
                                                         30           .0101

The 16 gauge wire is about 25% thicker than 18 gauge
The 22 gauge wire is about 25% thicker than 24 gauge

Not to get too technical, but this is a logarithmic scale,  but the important  concept is that the PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GAUGES IS LARGE in relation to the precision achievable in photogrammetry

This means for a given photogrammetric distance is it easier to pick out the exact gauge of wire used because the precision of the that method is often less than 2 to 5%.

PACKING FRACTION

There is a branch of mathematics which describes how many circles of uniform size can be drawn in a given area.
 It goes by several names but let's just call it Circle Packing Theory.    see Wikipedia article

By determining the winding window size, the  appropriate circle packing  fraction can be used to
determine a close estimate of the number of windings per coil. In the previous example cross-section of a coil

One type of winding is hexagonal winding, with the layers arranged more in a honeycomb pattern

Another  type of winding is known as square or precision winding has each layer of winding with
turns directly on top the wires in the layer beneath with no offset.

And thirdly,  there is a random type of winding with lots of crossover and gaps.

The hexagonal packing is the closest or densest  method of winding coils
with a value of 0.906  or about 91% of the area occupied by wire with the
balance of the area being gaps between the wires

Square geometry winding with  each winding of wire directly on top the
layer below ( No offset)   has a value of 0.785  It is not at close or dense
a winding as hexagonal winding.

A random wind often a more gaps but the packing ratio is highly dependent
on the size of the wire relative the length and width of the winding window


Circle Packing  Factors -- Percent of winding window occupied by wire
 
Hexagonal winding            90.6
Square winding                  78.5
Random                              Highly gauge dependent  (as gauge decreases, percent increases.)
                                            Random winding will have a packing percent less than the optimum 90.6 percent

Consider for a moment two equally sized sheets of sandpaper. One is coated coarse grade grit, the other coated  with a fine grit used for final sanding.  The  arrangement of the sand grains is random in both cases but there are fewer grains of sand  on the coarse paper and many more grains of  sand on the finer grit paper.

This is analogous to the number of random winding or wraps of wire in a given cross sectional area on a bobbin. Intuitively very small wire gauges have a higher  packing fraction than large. This is a difficult value to quantify

SO IN SOME CASES IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF TURNS
IN SOME CASES EMPIRCAL METHODS OR TEST WINDINGS MIGHT BE NECESSARY

As an example if the winding window is 1 square inch and the AWG  is 22, and the tighter hexagonal
winding factor is used(0.906) then  0.906 square inches of that window is occupied by the area of the wire..
The cross-sectional area of AWG 22 is 0.0005 inches per turn. Thus, 0.906 square inches of turns divided by 0.0005 square inch per turn equals approximately1800 turns.
 
With precision or square winding a factor of 0.78 instead of 0.906 can be used. This results in an estimate of
1560 turns through 1 inch square window.  The lower number of turns is expected since the. coil winding is not as densely wound. Also the length of the coils is needed for estimating the number of windings in determining the size of the\bobbin winding winded in the  circle packing theory application to inductance calculation.
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4. Velocity of Liquid or Gas[/b]

In the Dealership Sales, Manual, Stan Meyer considered the velocity of the magnetized gas as                 
an important factor for the  power output of the EPG.                       Ref..  EPG velocity doc.

Since the Canadian Patent Number CA1213671A1   titled "Electrical Particle Generator" mentions
 "slurries" an examination of liquid flow may yield additional insight into mode of operation of the EPG devices. .

In the Mechanical Drive EPG  had a velocity of 50 ips (inches per second)        Ref.  EPG velocity doc
Adjustment of the pump speed is made using a rheostat to vary input voltage.  Russ Greis developed an clever "breadboard" with each coil having a jumper connection on both ends of the coils allowing for varied parallel or series connections.
     
Thus a different voltage or amperage would have been possible  (using the  magnetic slurry)

The Mag-GAs Plasma EPGs  (both the 6 and 7 tier systems operated  at 90 ips          Ref . EPG velocity doc.
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5 Strength of Magnetic Flux

Because of lower magnetic susceptibility of gases vs slurries the multi-tier devices needed to be operated at higher speed.
This is based on the observation that the  magnetic susceptibility in ferro-fluids is directly related to the percentage of magnetite in suspension. A gas will have fewer atoms of  paramagnetic materials/ cc because of its lower density. 
 
To compensate for the lower magnetic susceptibility of the mag-gases the number of turns of the pick-up array would likely need to be increased to compensate for the lower flux values in the multiple tier systems.  In the multiple tier systems were see exactly that. The increased number of windings(36000) and increased volume of core (at least six times greater because of multiple tiers) is one way of compensating\for a lower flux value and to create higher power output  design  power 44Kw to 66 Kw)

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THE EMF TRANFORMER EQUATION

The electrical particle generators( EPGs) should be thought of as a very efficient transformer as well as a generator

Similarities between the types of EPGs

An examination of the available images seems to indicate:

1. The presence of input energy from a wall outlet  About 120 volts alternating current  60 cycle/sec (US). Wall outlets often have 10 or 15 Amp circuit breakers or fuses   (max 1200 to 1800 watts input)?
2. A spiraled core consisting of copper pipe or tubing
3. A core surrounded by  multiple coils of wire
4. A device that circulates a liquid, gas or slurry  (mechanical pump, linear magnetic pump)
5. Magnetic Alignment coils in some cases
6. Electronic circuity

MAIN DISCUSSION FOLLOWS BELOW

Applying known values or range of values to the equation to determine operating characteristics
and flux values

VARIABLE  LIST AND VALUE RANGE

VARIABLE                                                                                                                    VALUE                           
                                 
V1 = velocity of magnetic field movement per second                                                  50-90 ips           

N1 = number of twists per unit length  spiral divider per unit length                      0.3 - 1.2         
                                                                                                                                                                                                         
N3 = value of magnetic field strength                                                                           ?  TBD by calc. and type of EPG

F1 = value of the frequency pulsing alignment coils for dyne-axis of magnetic field     60 Hz/sec         Mains
 
N4=  number of coils per tier                                                                                             1 - 58         

N5 = number of turns in each coil                                                                                     200 - 12000       

cross-section winding factor: random, hexagonal or precision winding                         0.78- 0.906     
 
N6 = number of core sectors enclosed by pick-up coil                                                       3- 4
   
N7= number of tiers                                                                                                             1 -7

A1= cross-sectional area of tubing uses in EPG tier (in inches)                                         0.218 -0.254     

Power Input Variables)

W1 = watts required for initiation of flow    ( Initial inertial load)                                 Rheological, mass density and   
W2= steady state power load for mag-media circulation                                                                          see appendix 
W3 = dyne-axis load                                                                                                                                 see  appendix 

Known values

N1  known
N2  known   
N3  calculation to be completed
N4  known   
N5 known
N6 known
F1 known
P1  known
V1 known
 
Stated  design output  was 220 VAC @ 200- 300 amps       ( per Deer Creek Seminar notes)
 
To solve for N3. At one of the conferences in 2019 ( SMC 2019 Bremen Ohio), it was proposed that the Transformer EMF  equation might be used in the mathematical model of the Meyer EPG series regarding the flux density problem.

Through photogrammetry the  maximum number of turns , number of coils, diameter and volume of the core magnetized slurry/gas can be determined. Since the output power, velocity, and frequency are known with some precision.
It may be possible to arrange the transformer EMF equation to obtain a Beta Max for the flux density!!
                                           
Another observation was made at the 2019 Bremen Conference that the larger the core volume, the lower value of the magnetic saturation could be in the core and still maintain the same power output. This is because the total power output for the device is dependent in part  upon the total amount of flux present or contained  in the magnetic core.

If the other design factors such as the number of coils, number of winds and same velocity of the magnetic
gas or slurry are held constant, the limitations of the maximum level of  magnetic saturation of the EFH series ferrofluids can be mitigated. To increase power output scale up the volume of the  transformer core and the magnetic saturation can be lower and still provide the design power output. While the 400 Hz mil-spec converters are still an option for the magnetic drives, if operating frequency matches the 50 or 60 Hz standard for output for electricity for residential use the need for frequency conversion is eliminated.
           
Pump sizing

"Oil" based ferro-fluid characteristics            see attachments
   
1. Saturation Magnetization vs Magnetic Particle Concentration of EMG Oil Based Ferrofluids

     There is a direct linear relationship between how much magnetic saturation (strength) and the  percent of
     magnetite in suspension
       
2.  Although the magnetic saturation ( Ms ) vs % magnetite is linear, the rheological  ("thickness or viscosity" characteristics are not. At concentrations of more than 10% magnetite, there is a rapid increase in viscosity.

3   Ferrotec(r) only had 2  viscosity Educational Ferrofluids EFH at the time of Stan Meyer's research EFH1 and EFH- 4 but EFH -1 had the most saturation but was the thinnest of the two choices

4.   The EMG series ( a similar Oil Based Ferrofluid) has 5 different types with varied magnetic saturation and viscosities so these were examined because a greater number of data points  were available.   see attachment

It is seen that in the EFH series that the EFH-1 has the highest Ms/ viscosity ratio
In the EMG series EMG-905 has the highest Ms/viscosity ratio


Stan Meyer  was likely looking for a Ferrofluid that maximized Ms in relation to viscosity
If the ferrofluid is too thick it might show greater resistance to pumping
If the ferrofluid is too thin it does not maximize the Ms needed for power generation

There appears to be a "Goldilocks zone" not too thick to pump and not too weak in terms of
the magnetic saturation of flux limits   (about 400 Ms. in EFH and EMG series)

For the oil based  (actually  a type of kerosene) ferrofluids having a magnetic susceptibility
of 400 gauss seem to be optimum.in terms of  magnetic susceptibility in relation to viscosity.

That being said, it is very likely that ferrofluids were tried in the mechanical drive
EPG and possibly in other EPG types

Since output data is only available for the 6Tmaggas EPG and for the velocity of the magnetic medium,  one approach to determine the flux in the 6 multi-tier system as if EFH-1 was present and then scale down to the magnetic pump system  and volume of EFH-1at the stated velocity and use a calculated flux density to determine output characteristics of the  magnetic pump  devices.
The sizing of the bus bars, the parallel  arrangement of the pick-up coils and the  breakdown voltage of the insulation might put some upper limits to how it was being operated and limits to the possible voltages and amps produced.

                        Design output  220 VAC at 300 amps  =  44,000 to 66,000 watts
 Calculations
                      So now let's assign values to some of the variables....
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   Cross sectional area is calculated as follows:

                  1. Determine the diameter of the tubing    0.5" obtained by photogrammetry  0.5 outside diameter
                     also confirmed by actual measurement by Don Gabel . (see notebook photos)

                  2. Determine the range of. possible internal diameters     Common types of pipe K L and M that have the
                      same outside diameter but thickness of inner diameter and wall thickness vary.
Stan Meyer may have used  pre-coiled air conditioning or water supply tubing. for ease of construction.

MECHANICAL DRIVE EPG –FLOW RATE ANALYSIS

As discussed previously, a small electrically powered mechanical pump was used to circulate a permanently magnetized gas or slurry in a closed loop system.
•   From the photogrammetric analysis of available imagery, the pump was identified as a Model B-500 Little Giant®
•   The manufacturer specifications show that the pump was designed to provide a flow rate of 500 gallons per hour when pumping water.
•   Some information is available regarding the flow rate of the magnetic material when the EPG was operating.  The flow rate has been posted on the internet as 50 inches per second.
•   Additionally the outside diameter of the copper tubing has been determined to be 0.500 inches by photogrammetric means


With the preceding information, it may be possible to perform calculations to verify that the pump selected is consistent and capable with reported velocity for the magnetic slurry or gas. The original device, now owned by Quad City Innovations was not available for inspection and for direct measurement but a reasonable estimate of flow rate within a working EPG can be made.


Dimensions and Types of the Copper Tubing

At the time of the construction of the EPG systems, there were, as there are today, three major types of copper tubing with letters being assigned to tubing of varying wall thickness. They are designated as type K, L and M, with K having the thickest wall and M having the thinnest wall       ref .The Copper Handbook    


Type    O.D.        I..D.        Wall       Cross-Section    Volume
                                                         of  tube               per inch

K      0.500      0.402      0.049   .127                     .127
L      0.500      0.430      0.035   .145                   .145
M      0.500      0.450      0.028   .159                     .159
   
From the tubing chart of copper tubing with outside diameter of 0.500,  type “K ”will be used as an example for the calculations.

The internal cross-sectional  area of type  “K” tubing is 0.127  square inches.
A cylinder with this size base and 1 inch tall would have a volume of  0.127   cubic inches

Formula
   
Volume of cylinder = area of base times height   ( V = B x H)
Since the velocity has been given as 50 inches per second, a cylinder 50 inches long would have a volume equal to the cross sectional area times the height of 50. This represents the volume of liquid pumped past a point on the spiraled tubing  in one second

Conversion factors
3600 seconds / 1 hour
0.0043 U.S. gallons / 1 cubic inch

Example for Type “K” Tubing
1.27 cubic inches/second  times 50 = 6.35 cubic inches per second  6.35 cubic inches/ second  times  3600 sec/ hr. = 22,860 cubic inches/ hour.
Then by applying the appropriate conversion factor, gallons per hour may be obtained.
Thus,  22,860  cubic inches / hour times  0.0043 gallons/ cubic inch equals flow rate of  98.3  gallons per hour for Type ”K” tubing.

 In a similar fashion, the flow rate of types L and M are determined.
•   Type ”L” has a flow rate of 7.25 cubic inches/second  which yields a value of 112.5  gallons per hour.

•   Type M tubing has a flow rate of 7.95 cubic inches /second which yields a value of 123.0 U.S. gallons/ hour.

•   Depending on the type of tubing used, the flow rate was calculated to be between  98 and 123 gallons per hour
.
Summary

The Little Giant ® pump was rated at 500 gph so it appears that the specifications of the pump were reasonable for the operation of the mechanical drive EPG.  The pump was designed to pump water but in this application a slurry containing magnetic material would be
•   denser
•   have an increased viscosity
•   be susceptible to possible back emf eddy currents reducing flow
•   experience turbulence at sharp bends and at the pump impellers
•   experience back pressure in a closed system
•   be susceptible to magnetic restriction to flow at the alignment coils

As an example, a ferro fluid such as EFH-1  (Ferro-Tech) has a density of 1.21 g/cc, a viscosity of 6 cP and Saturation Magnetization of 440 Gauss all of which could contribute to a slower flow velocity. Thus it is expected that
the flow rate would be less than 500 gallons per hour.
However there is some evidence for ferro-fluids to have lower viscosity under certain circumstances.

Evidence for use of  ferrofluids in the Mechanical Drive EPG
1.The existence of a photograph of another copper spiral with the label 1 ¼  cup 
2.The Pantone® color matching of  spill corrosion to Copper Oleate
3. photographs of EFH-1 in the laboratory

A very useful free reference is The Copper Tubing Handbook which provides the specifications and measurements for copper tubing and pipe.

You can google The Copper Tubing Handbook for the pdf  or just click on this link:

https://pbar.fnal.gov/organizationalchart/Leveling/2004%20water%20cage%20work/Cutubehandbook.pdf
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Reducing resistance to flow

One observation concerning the publicly available EPG images, is that there do not seem to be joints on the spiraled sections
themselves although the connecting copper pipes to the pumps or other means of moving the slurry or gas are straight.
Stan Meyers was practical and tried to keep things simple, so I believe he just used piping that was already coiled when purchased.

So, using the above reference to get a range of possible values for the cross-sections of the copper tubing and pipes commonly available.. Copper pipe has three basic wall thicknesses: Type K, Type L and Type  M
  So even though the outside diameter may remain the same, a THICKER wall results in a SMALLER cross-section inside the tube

So here's the values of cross-sectional area for different copper tubing and pipe in square inches:

Type K    0.218   Type L  0.233   Type M  0.254   
So the cross-sectional area for coiled copper pipe  is between 0.218 and 0.254 square inches

Since the 6 tier system is not available for examination at this time, there is a degree of  imprecision for the cross-sectional area value.
Because the cross-sectional area is used in volume calculations and in the calculation of total magnetic flux for these systems, the estimates of system performance depend upon the type of tubing used in the construction.
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Length of tubing carrying magnetic slurry/gas

Since the EPGs are of a general circular design, the formula    C = D x Pi  or stated -- Circumference of a circle equals the diameter times Pi .

Now, if you are trying to find the total length of tubing  used in an EPG which is a spiral, for example(for example exactly 3 loops, then think of this as 3 circles each with a different diameter and circumference The outer loop is longer than the middle loop which is in turn larger the innermost ring of loop.

So roughly speaking, let's say you had an EPG like the Magnetic Drive (Red Pump) System and that by examination or photogrammetry and it was determined that diameter was 17 inches.

If  1/2  inch tubing is used the construction, what would be the diameter of the middle loop?

The radius  of the middle loop is moved in by 1/2 inch because of the width of the outer loop or to put it another way, the diameter of the middle loop would be 16 inches measured across its outside  By a similar reasoning, the innermost loop is  or about 15 inches in diameter.

So the length the spiral is approximately ( 15 + 16 + 17) times Pi.   Now Stan Meyer for reasons of type of pump used (B-500) had input and output connections at right angles)then some portions of the spiral had four loops instead of three so adjustments will have to be made for this added length.   The total length of is important because this is used in the calculations for the volume of gas or ferrofluid being used and also in the calculations for inductance and the number windings for the coils as well as the length of wire required for making the windings.
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Coils and length of wire need for project and per coil
Length of wire for winding is dependent on the number of channels used for the flowing  magnetic media

                                                                                                                              End View            "Tube" length

A formula for a single wind around a single circular  core                                          O      diameter of wire times 1

1.A formula for multiple winds around a singular tubular core  of length L               O        diameter of wire  x N  number of windings or wraps

2 A formula for multiple winds around  two adjacent tubular cores of length L        OO       
diameter of wire  x N  number of windings or wraps plus


.3 A formula for multiple winds around three adjacent tubular cores of length         OOO       
diameter of wire  x N number of windings  or wraps plus 2 C
   
4. General Formula for multiple winds around  multiple tubes                                    OOOO...           
diameter of wire  x N number of windings or wraps  plus

So the length of the tube determines the total number of wraps possible independent of the number of adjacent tubes (close wraps  no spacing between wraps on tube)

Formula  Length of tube (think inductor core) equals the number of wraps times the width or diameter of the wire  L= N times W or    L/ divided by W  = N
It provides a way of determining the number of wraps  that can fit on a given length of  tube or core.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Next- determine the Length of Wire required for one wrap around multiple adjacent cores


Formula for 1 core                                 O           L   = Diameter of core times Pi

Formula for 2 adjacent cores              OO           L = (Diameter of core times Pi)  PLUS  2D  <---    for the wire that bridges the "notch" between the adjacent tubes  (top and bottom)

Formula foe 3 adjacent cores            OOO          L = (Diameter of  core times Pi)  PLUS  4D  <---   to account for the length needed to bridge 2 notches between the adjacent tubes (top and bottom)

Formula for 4 adjacent cores          OOOO          L = Diameter of core times Pi)    PLUS  6D <---    To account for the length  needed to bridge 3 notches between the adjacent tubes (top and bottom)


In summary, we now can calculate the length of a single wrap of wire around multiple adjacent cores and if we multiply that by the number of wraps  or turns that can be wrapped on a given linear length of coil. It is also useful  in determining the total amount of wire needed for construction.

General Formula for Single Layer 1 wrap or turn around multiple adjacent tubes

  L length equals ( Diameter of core or tube) plus ( ( N or number of cores minus 1) times 2)

So now is possible to calculate the number of winds or wraps (single layer0 around an EPG if we know the diameter of the outermost core of a spiraled EPG, the number of "loops" in the spiral, the outside
diameter of the core tubing and the gauge, diameter or width of the wire used to  wrap the core

So let's give a quick try for the multitier 6TmaggasEPG

1 tier is about 17 inches in diameter.   Since the line drawing of the 7 tier system  and photographs show the drain/connecting tubes are 180 degrees apart so its possible to keep the number of loops for a tier to
be 2.5 3.5 or 4.5 loops or if the connecting tubes are all  exact  integers of loops the connecting tube could be all on one side.  Or the direction of the flow could be counterclockwise  one tier and clockwise in the other tier. So based on the line drawing lets say that that each tier has 3.5 loops

Length of core for 1 tier       [ ( 15+16+17)]times Pi ]  plus( 1/2 times 14 times Pi) = 150.78 + 29.99 =  172.77 inches   6 tiers 1036 inches
172.77 inches  divided by .025 inches per turn  (22 gauge wire by photogrammetry  = maximum 6910 turns per tier
6 times 6910  = 41,460 turns  or if you use exactly 3 loops per tier    150.78 times 6 = 904  inches  904 divided by  0.025 = about 36,191 turns  6 tiers 906 inches

Image an inductor with between 36 and 41 thousand turns of wire and  between  75 and 86 feet long !
 
Design parameters                                                                                                                                   

The design output is 220 volts at 300 amp draw  66,000 watts  (Watts)           
(W) 220 times 300 amp draw   = 66,000 watts

The cross-sectional area of the core is between 0.218 and  0.254 square in
 or (A)  =  1.406 to 1.634  sq cm or 0.0001406 to 0.0001634  square meters

F (frequency) is  60 cycle/ second AC
                                                                         
V (voltage) is 220 volts AC output
                                     
K Constant  = 4.44
                                                                                                           
Solving of Bm =Betamax

Basic equation

  V  = voltage
  F  = supply frequency
  N = number of turns
  A = cross sectional area in square meters
  B = peak  magnetic flux density in Weber / meter squared or T tesla
  K = 4.44
 
   V = 4.44  x F x N x A x B or rearranging this and solving for B

    B =    V  divided by( 4.44   x  F x  N    x   A)           

If the known values are input into the equation for a six tier device--

V = voltage       220 VAC
F=  60 hertz per second in the US
N= 11,873
A =  0. 000468  sq m area     3 channels of pipe  x 0.242 sq inches divided by conversion factor 1550  =  000468 square meters
4.44 = constant

B max  =   220/ 1480  or    0.1486  Wb/M squared  or Tesla for the 5/8" six tier system4.44 times F*N * Beta Max * A
 
Rearranging: Beta Max  =  V  divided by ( 4.44 x F x  N x  A)
       
 220 divided y(  4.44 times  60 Hz/sec  frequency times 36191 x .218 A sq inches   =  .00010

NOW HERE'S AN IMORTANT POINT--The Betamax can be LOWER
in the magnetic gas/or slurry when the  voltage, frequency, and number of turns is constant WITH the
cross-sectional area being increased. As the denominator increases du
to a larger diameter tube being used ,the Betamax can be lower and still yield the same power at the same voltage. Essentially the Betamax, the maximum amount of flux flowing the core is inversely related to the area of the transformer core, so if the gas or ferrofluid is limited by MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY by increasing the size of the tubing  ,scale up in size and a low Betamax will suffice for same output
V = 220 VAC...
F = supply frequency
N = number of turns
A = cross sectional area in square meters
B = peak  magnetic flux density in Wb / meter squared or T tesla
K = constant

V = 4.44  x F  x N  x A x Beta max,   or rearranging

Beta max  =    V divided by( 4.44 * F *  N * A )           

So  plugging in a few figures for a six tier device with a 5/8" OD copper spiral


 V = voltage       220 VAC
 F= 60 hertz per second in the U.S.
 N = 11,870
A =   0. 000468  sq m area      3 channels of pipe  x 0.242 sq inches divided by conversion factor 1550  =  0.000468 square meters
B = Beta-Max
K = 4.44   ( constant )

Thus B-max  =   220/ 1480  or  0.1486  Wb/M squared  or Tesla  for the 5/8" six tier system

 Next Topic Multiple layer coils

 In terms of construction if the cross sectional area is changed because of using a larger diameter tubing but keeping N number of turns the same and the length of the
spiraled coils is the same and other factors the same (same desired output) t because the output is related to the amount of flux of the core, the larger the core in terms of cross section (and volume) means that a lower Beta value in the core of  the upsized EPG can  still result in the desired power output.  Basically if more power is needed the large core can allow for a lower amount of flux to be used if there is a limit to magnetic saturation for the slurry or mag-gas matrix.

This is more useful to calculate wire requirements for the Mechanical Pump EPG .
Since it's possible to estimate the thickness of the coils, the length of the original coils,
the gauge of the wire and velocity of the ferrofluid 50 ips  and using a flux value estimate
a power output for the Mechanical Pump EPG.
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epg coil tap termnals.jpg                                                                                         
1. Dealership Sales Manual (Third Edition) 1986  p. J9  or   WFC Memo 418 Electrical Particle Generator  Appendix Fig. 27 " Mechanical Drive EPG
2, Canadian Patent  CA1213671A1 Electrical Particle Generator
3. Image Estate Visit image jpg DSC-178   06/13/2009 Top View Mechanical Drive EPG
4. Image Estate Visit image jpg  DSC-167  06 13 2009 Top Vier  EPG
5. Image Estate Visit image jpg   Linear Drive EPG  2006 visit
6. Image Russ Greis replication Magnetic Drive EPG     from open-source-energy.org
7. Image Estate Visit image jpg DSC-179 B500 pump with  90 degree angle inlet and outlet ports-
8. Image Estate Visit
9. EPG Electrical Magnetic Gas Accelerator Fig. 28.Line Drawing  Dealership Manual  p J9 and WFC Memo 418 Appendix
10. EPG Photon Gas Accelerator             Fig.29.  Dealership Manual   p.J12 and WFC Memo 418 Appendix
11  EPG Magnetic Field Spin Generator  Fig. 30 Dealership Manual and WFC Memo 418 Appendix
12.Image video clip from Deercreek Sermon and Seminar (Part 1)
13.
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16. EPG  velocity doc.
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