Paul Pantone > Basic theory

Paul Pantone Basic setup of Geet reactor

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Steve:
A brief description :

The GEET is a dynamic fuel-exhaust recycling device that can be fitted to an engine, between the air intake and the exhaust.

A model suitable for a small two- or four-stroke (lawn-mower or small generator) typically consists of two horizontally-lying, concentric steel or metallic pipes of about 50 cm in length, one inside the other. The outer pipe has an inside diameter of 25.4 mm, the inner pipe an outside diameter of 12.7 mm and an inner diameter of 12.4 mm. Within the latter is a long solid steel or iron bar, whose diameter is 12 mm, that doesn’t touch it, except at three solder points at each of its extremities. Let us call A and B the two ends of the 50 cm long pipes and bar.

The exhaust from the engine travels

* From A along the "outer" concentric space, between the two pipes, to B.
* From there, it is sent bubbling at high pressure to the bottom a jug of water with some fuel that is vapourized by the heat.
* It is then sent along the inner pipe, in the thin space round the central solid steel bar, back from B to A, to near the air intake, where it is mixed with some fresh air.
* The latter mixture is input to the motor

A preliminary analysis of the GEET

Two-strokes are known to be inefficient as only a certain proportion of their fuel is burnt.

Their exhaust typically consists of the following :

1 - Air somewhat depleted in oxygen
2 - Carbon dioxide
3 - Carbon and nitrogen monoxyde
4 - Water vapour
5 - Unburnt volatile gasoline
6 - Particles of heavier hydrocarbons, lubrifying oil and soot

In the case of four-strokes, there is less of 5 and 6.

* As the exhaust first travels between the "outer" space, between inner and the outer pipes, it heats their surface to its own temperature. In order that this temperature be as high as possible, the outer pipe should be thermally insulated with a glass wool jacket. Another contribution to higher temperatures at the inner surface of the outer pipe involves the Ranque-Hilsch effect : the exhaust flow should spiral, so that the hotter components in the gas gather against the outer surface where the steam is more thoroughly reduced into hydrogen while the pipe surface is oxidized. In turn, the released hydrogen reacts with the carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide and water (CO2 + H2 >> CO + H2O) at high temperatures, while the steam can again be reduced by the hot iron into hydrogen. Provided that the outer surface of the cooler inner tube contains catalyzers such as nickel, already at 200° C, carbon dioxide and hydrogen combine into methane and water (CO2 + 4H2 >> CH4 + 2H2O), the latter of which can again be reduced at the hotter surface of the outer pipe. Therefore, both the water and the carbon dioxide are reduced, the exhaust becomes depleted in carbon dioxide and enriched in fuels such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane.

* This pretreated exhaust bubbles through the jug of water and fuel, the latter remaining at the top when not miscible (gasoline, heavy fuel or miscible glycol alcohol, etc). The depth of the water increases the pressure in the preceding reducing stage. Now, along with some soot, heavy hydrocarbons and unburnt fuel that are recycled, the carbon dioxide dissolves in the water and is removed from the exhaust so long as the water isn’t saturated. To increase the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved, the pressure should be maximal and the water circulated. In critical closed-cycle applications, the resulting carbonic acid could react with a metal such as zinc or magnesium to release hydrogen. The resulting carbonate and hydroxide, as well as the reducing metal of the inner surface of the outer pipe could then be recycled later by using solar energy.  Another option is using some mix of photosynthetic algae in an adjacent first stage to convert the carbon dioxide into oxygen and biomass, and fermenting anaerobic bacteria in a second stage to generate methane and hydrogen from the latter.

* The fuel as well as some water are vapourized in the bubbler.

* The cooled and enriched exhaust now travels at high speed inside the inner pipe, as the available space is thin, round the solid steel bar. Here, it must be observed that there are heat gradients, as the outer surface of the inner pipe is heated by the exhaust, while the steel bar inside that doesn't touch it is cooled by the cooler flow of the bubbled exhaust. The Ranque-Hilsch effect can again be used to further reduce the temperature round the inner bar. This involves replacing the three extremal solder points by small soldered coiled lines of wire at the B end of the iron bar.

* Some of the previously generated hydrogen may, here again, catalytically combine with the remaining carbon dioxyde into methane and water against the outer surface of the nickel inner tube.

* Because steel is magnetic and its Curie temperature is even higher than that of the outer, hotter pipe, all the surfaces inside the GEET are mesoscopically strongly magnetized, locally, on the level of magnetic domains of about 80nm, even if this magnetism isn’t apparent macroscopically. However, only the inner steel bar is in contact with a sufficiently cool flow so it is below the Curie temperature of the Magnegas.

As a result, when the molecules bounce against the surface of the pipes, they experience a strong magnetic field of several Tesla. As R.M. Santilli has shown, diatomic molecules such as H2 , O2 and CO can be magnetically polarized, and may assemble into clusters that this researcher calls magnecules. These have a Curie temperature which is at about 150° C for H2 and CO. The rate of formation of such magnecules will thus be higher on the cooler surface of the steel bar. The corresponding magnetically polarized gas is called a Magnegas (TM). Because most chemical reactions involve polarized molecules while ordinary gases are unpolarized, magnegases release far more energy than expected from the combustion of their unpolarized counterparts. Also note that, due to the recycling, the O2 molecules may pass several times into the magnetically polarizing cavity.

MASER emission might also occur in this cavity, which might accelerate the formation of magnecules.

The recycled and enriched exhaust thus in the end contains:

* CO, NO, O2 and H2 molecules, the latter resulting from the reduction of steam on the outer hot steel surface or from biomass recycling.
* Magnecules of the latter.
* Some methane from catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide and hydrogen or from biomass.
* Recycled unburnt fuel.
* Vapourized fuel from the bubbler.
* Less CO2 than in the original exhaust, at least until the water becomes saturated in the simplest devices. This suggests the importance of increasing the pressure in the bubbler.

The mechanisms involved suggest an improvement in efficiency from:

* Thermally insulating the outer pipe.
* Placing reducing elements at the inner surface of the outer pipe, with high surface area if in the solid state, or as a liquid circulating blanket maintained by centrifugal forces in a rotating configuration.
* Using spiralling vents at the entry of the exhaust into the cylindrical outer space, and coiled elements at the entry of the bubbled exhaust round the inner bar so that the flow spirals and, by the Ranque-Hilsch effect, concentrates its hot components on the outside and its cooler ones on the inside.
* Using a steel or alloy with high magnetic permeability and saturation, or very pure Iron for the inner bar.
* Polarizing the fuel in the bubbler into a Magneliquid, and the fresh air into a Magnegas.
* Increasing the pressure at the bubbler so that a maximal amount of carbon dioxide is dissolved.
* Using a metallic powder of Zinc or Magnesium so that the resulting carbonic acid releases hydrogen and carbonate in critical closed-cycle applications, or a multistage biomass of photosynthetic algae and anaerobic bacteria to convert the carbon dioxide into oxygen and biomass and the latter into methane in less critical or fixed applications.

The central iron bar should be at less than 150° C (the Curie temperature of Magnegas), the surrounding catalytic pipe at about 200° C (that converts carbon dioxyde and hydrogen into water and methane), and the outer pipe at yet higher temperatures.

According to the inventor, Mr Pantone, the central steel or iron bar acquires an overall magnetization and must always be oriented in the same way with respect to the magnetic north in devices where it is horizontal, and similarly with respect to the vertical, when vertical.

The energy balance:

On the minus side:

* The vapourized fuel spent (whatever the actual proportion of fuel in the bubbler, which can be as low as 20%)
* The steel or reducing agent oxidized, mainly at the inner surface of the outer pipe
* The metallic powder turned into carbonate.

On the plus side :

* The unburnt fuel and hydrocarbons recycled, especially for two-strokes
* The unburnt CO and NO recycled
* The increased energy released by the use of magnecules
* The possibility of using a wide variety of cheap fuels
* Dissolved CO2 converted to oxygen and biomass and then the latter into methane and hydrogen in several stages or into carbonates and hydrogen by a metal in the bubbler itself or some adjacent reactor.

Any test of exhaust emissions should take into account the CO2 retained in the water. Also note that, when this CO2 is eventually released in the atmosphere or recycled, one is left with a brew consisting of residual, unvolatilized fuel, soot and various heavy hydrocarbons, which would be ideally suited for recycling in a "Hadronic Reactor" into Magnegas. Thus, provided that the overall cycle proves to have a favourable efficiency, there might be a synergy between the GEET and Hadronic reactors, as they both involve Magnegases and the waste from the one may be taken as starting materials for the other.

For most two-strokes, there should be quite a significant improvement in efficiency from the recycling of the unburnt fuel alone. For other motors in which there is less of the latter, the gain could be lower but still not negligible. Note also that the Magnegas produced in "Hadronic Reactors" is unsuitable for two-strokes, as these require a liquid fuel into which the lubricating oil is mixed.

Thus, this system has several positive points. On the other hand, claiming that it runs on 80% of water and 20% of fuel when this is just the proportion that is present in the bubbler where the fuel is preferentially vapourized by the hot exhaust, ignoring the oxydation of the metal in the pipes and their effective lifetime, ignoring the CO2 retained in the water, especially during the first ten minutes after start-up, as well as the liquid wastes that are produced when measuring the exhaust emissions and not mentionning for how long a specific test was performed can be very misleading, to the point of bordering on fraud.

Suggested improvements involve the use of spiralling aerodynamic flows so as to optimize the temperature gradients at several key locations by the Ranque-Hilsch effect (to minimize the temperature round the central iron bar, and maximize it at the inner surface of the inner and outer pipes), thermally insulating the outer pipe, increasing the pressure so as to maximize the solution of carbon dioxide in the bubbler, and circulating the resulting carbonic acid in adjacent reactors, using a multistage configuration of photosynthetic and anaerobic recycling biomass to convert it to oxygen and methane or using a reactive metal to release hydrogen in certain critical closed-cycle applications. Solar energy can be used at a later stage to release the oxygen taken up by the reducing metal and recycle it.

Steve:
Video's of explanation of GEET and other Geet videos

Steve:
a whole package of very helpfull info from a yahoo group

Steve:
The master himself Paul Pantone

Gauss:
Try this, incredible results from what I have heard so far:

http://www.panaceauniversity.org/Leo%20Umila%20supplemental%20GEET.pdf