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Stanley A Meyer EPG Design Concepts ionizationx
« on: November 05, 2021, 23:19:46 pm »
INTRODUCTION

Stanley A Meyer has provided a number of design factors affecting output when designing
particle generators  (EPG). By using photogrammetry and published information, insight into the principles
and operations of the Meyer EPG systems can be better understood.

1 Number of pickup coils    KNOWN by examination of images
2 Number of  turns per coil KNOWN through calculation using packing theory
3. Length of tubes                KNOWN photogrammetric means and calculations
4. Velocity of gas                  KNOWN published data
5. Strength of flux density  CAN BE CALCULATED using the values of  factors 1 though 4 for the six tier EPG

Basic information on the Electrical Particle Generators comes from the followings sources:

REFERENCES

1.  Stanley A. Meyer, Dealership Sales Manual ( First, Second and Third Editions) 1985,1986
2.  High Resolution Photographs of EPGs by Don Gabel               Globalkast.com, open-source-energy.com
3   Yahoo Stan Meyer  Interest Group                                              site no longer available Deercreek Seminar
4.  Index to Electrical Particle Generator. WFC Memo 418            Posted  at Ionizationx.com
5.   Stanley A. Meyer, Water Fuel Cell News Release Issue 3         Winter/Spring 86/87 p.2   Free downloads at ionization.com, globalkast.com, open-source-energy-org
6.   Grove City Record July 4 1985,  "Water Fuel Cell considered for Star Wars Program"    ( Picture of Multiple-Tier EPG )
7.   Stanley A. Meyer, Technical Bulletin (First and Second Editions)   Laboratory Copies     ref LOC
8.   Stanley A. Meyer, The Birth of New Technology  1991,1994,1995 editions  Posted          Free downloads at Globalkast.com, Ionizationx,com, open-source energy.org
10. Stanley A. Meyer  International Independent Technical Evaluation Report  1986  Posted  Free downloads at Globalkast.com, Ionizationx.com,  open-source energy.org
11. Private video collections from Michigan, Ohio, California  and a UK Collection               From 2 Meyer videographers ,and Michigan, Ohio, and London collections
12. Stanley A Meyer Anthology 1975-2021 (Newspaper, Magazine, Publications, Conference and Laboratory Videos)                     unpublished
13.  Stanley A. Meyer Videography  posted at ionizationx.com and  open-source-engergy.org  Conference and Laboratory Videos)  unpublished
14.  Magnetic-Spin EPG     Lab Photo
15.  Multi-Tier EPG             Lab Archive Video 1984
16. Canadian Patent   "Electrical Particle Generator"   CA Patent Number 1213671A1
e EPG  Enigma "  Bremen Conference Handout   image SMEPG022 (C)
18.  jpg 175    Gabel visit
19.
20.
21.

Using information from photographs, documents and  using electronic mathematical formulas, operating characteristics of the Electrical Particle Generators (EPG)- may be obtained   Because we know the design power output of the multitier system , we can use the 4 values known in a 5 variable EMF transformer equation to come up wit estimates of Betamax and flux values in the magnetic plasma gas matrix.  If that value is substituted into the single tier systems what would be a calculated voltage and or output value for the single tier systems                                         
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Resistors and Capacitors  not discussed in this article

An intrinsic portion of the Stanley Meyer technology had inductors, chokes and coils as important components of devices in the VIC,EPG and other printed circuit boards
Many of Stanley Meyer's patents and publications provide diagrams provide the general description or have line drawings that lack exact component values FOR the capacitors and resistors is much more straightforward using programs that match color code bands on resistors with values and  OCR image data files input cross-matched with component  files based on supplier catalog scans is not discussed here resistors, capacitors , coils and chokes. Fortunately, the high resolution photographs from the L3 storage unit and by Don Gabel, The Orion Project and others allow for many printed circuits to be closely  reconstructed.
   
The following section is related to the photogrammetric analysis of coils and inductors. The values of the capacitors and resistors is much more straightforward using programs that match color code bands on resistors with values and  OCR image data files input cross-matched with component  files based on supplier catalog scans is not discussed here

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COILS AND INDUCTORS


1.Number of  Pick-up Coils   KNOWN

When designing an Electrical Particle Generator ( EPG), the number of turns, number of coils, and the method on connecting  can be varied depending upon the desired output in terms of amps and volts.

For the number of   pick-up coils a visual examination of the high resolution images published by Don  Gabel. provides the needed information.

The following is a listing of  number coils  for the various versions of EPGs from images posted by  Don Gabel

Single tier systems

      Description                     3 channel Coils     4 channel Coil     Total Coils    Core  Turns/tier     Image Metadata/ref   
       
      Mechanical Drive EPG              57                       19                           76                    3.25                     June 2009 jpg   Gabel/Orion
                                                                                     
      Magnetic Gas Accelerator          28                       29                           57                    3.5.                     June 2009  jpg   Gabel/Orion
                                                   
      Photon Gas Accelerator               ?                          ?                             ?                     ?                         p .J12 Dealership Sales Manual
                                                                                         .
      Magnetic Spin Accelerator         71                         10                          81                                              June 2009   jpg  Gabel/Orion                                                                               

      Coil 1.25 cup Coil Assembly       82                          0                          82                 3                           June 2009  jpg  Gabel/Orion

Multi-tier Systems
                                                                               
     6-tier Mag Gas Plasma      All 6 tiers had 3.5 core turns grouped in pairs electrically to obtain 3 phase output         Deercreek Seminar image and Laboratory Video Archive
                                           
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2.The Number of Turns )    KNOWN   

 To find[ total b] number of winds[on a pickup coil ,two numbers need to be obtained:

1. number of winds that can fit on the length of the pick-up coil bobbin
2. number of layers of windings

. Number of winds per length of coil                                                                                                                                                                       

 For coils wound with a single layer of winds, close up inspection of the coils may be sufficient to  directly count the number of windings.  However multiple layer coils requires the use of more advanced techniques using the concept of  Circle Packing Theory   
  Because high resolution photographs of the electrical particle generators exist, it is possible to estimate the number of turns per length coil by the following means:    A program such as Screen-caliper (r) or Adobe Photoshop( r) can measure distance or provide pixel counts. Basically the measurements are compared to values from known components In this manner the size of objects in a picture. are obtained.  Using this method, it was determined that the diameter of the wire used to wind the pick-up coils was 22 gauge wire or  0.025 inch diameter AWG. Thus, if the number of visible turns per coil can be determined and an estimate of the linear length of the coil can be made then by determining the thickness of the winding, an estimate of the number of turns per coil can be calculated.

The actual outside diameter of the tubing  was directly measured by Gabel and so the O..D of pipe used in the spiraled core is known (0.5 inches) with great  precision.

If the cross section area of "winding window" is calculated and the wire gauge known, circle packing theory allows estimates of the number of turns per coil  (N)  to be calculated.

3.Empirical method

To use the empirical method , bind together 3 sections of copper tubing laid side by side and to physically wrap a coil of suitable length and winding depth. Adding complexity of the problem of the style or type of winding used( i.e. hexagonal rectangular or random) One can wind more turns on a bobbin if the winding is hexagonal and less if its random because of a larger air space between adjacent winds.



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3.Length of individual pickup Coils[ (L) )
KNOWN
 
The length of the pickup coil (L) is considered to be the linear distance of the core that is occupied by each of the  pickup windings.

Methods of  calculation

1.Approximate method
 
One method would be to determine the circumference of the spiraled core  and divide by the number of observed pickup coils. So, as an example, the  diameter of the spiraled tubing is about 16 inches yielding a circumference of about 51 inches.  Now suppose you counted 25 pickup coils, ( then 51 divided by 25)  would mean that each pickup coils is approximately 2 inches long.

2. More precise method

Now in practice, the length of the coils is more closely approximated by accounting for the length of spiral occupied by dividers and unwrapped length of unwound core. Because the length of the pickup coil (L)will be used in later inductance calculations it is important to obtain a good estimate of its value. For example the pickup coil count for the Mechanical Pum EPG is 57, with  2 unwound sections and sixty spacers. Thus, 1/59th of the circumference of the spiraled core..( 17 time Pi) divided by 59 equalsx0.905 inches.

3. Wire gauge method

Fortunately, the gauge of the wire is known with some precision  Also the number of visible windings times the diameter of the wire can also be used as a cross-check for the  directed length  measurement of the coils.

4. Direct measurement
From measurement of existing devices  or ratio method of comparing pixel length of part the pixel count of anther part whose actual length is known..
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The following section is related to the photogrammetric analysis of coils and inductors. The values of the capacitors and resistors is much more straightforward using programs that match color code bands on resistors with values and  OCR image data files input cross-matched with component  files based on supplier catalog scans is not discussed here
.
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Inductor and Coil Methods 

Method 1. Determine Length  (L) of bobbin, thickness or depth of winding,/the wire gauge and method of winding.
   
The diameter of the outermost EPG channel or loop can be estimated.at  about 17 inches Therefore the outer circumference can be estimated at  17 x Pi inches. By dividing the circumference by the observed number of coils an estimated length of each coil can be made.
.
Method 2

A further refinement in precision can be made by subtraction of  the total length  L occupied by coil spacers. So in the case where you count,  as an example, assuming a diameter of 17 inches, 59 coils and 60 coil end spacers, each winding is 1/59th of the circumference of 53.4 inches or calculated at about 0.905 inches long.  (This is accounting for the total distance occupied by spacer or dividers on the spiral. and additional adjustment to the calculations taking into account the length of the spiral not wrapped with any windings


Method 3. Direct Measurement

Because of  the high resolution photographs available, estimates the length of  a coil can be made directly by use of the measuring tools in Adobe  Photoshop (r)or Screen Caliper(r) Using a known measurement such as the exact outside diameter of tubing i.e.. (0.500 inches) comparing relative size with a screen distance tool in Photoshop(r) or another program such as Screen Caliper(r) the length of the coil can be determined with precision. The results of visible wire counts from a number of coils can be averaged as a starting point for calculations.
 

Thickness or Height of coils

Once the length of the pick up coils is determined,. the other factor needed is the height (H) of the winding window Since the outside diameter (O.D.) of the core channel is known,  an estimate of the height  of depth of winding may be obtained by using  photogrammetric methods and the following method.

1. The total thickness or height of the wound coil is first measured.
2. Then the core diameter is then subtracted.
3. The resulting value is divided by 2, to obtain the height (H) of the winding window. (one side of the coil)

The length (L) of the coils is determined by the methods previously discussed.

Multiplying the height (H) by coil length( L)  yields the area (A) of the winding window
 
Thus, a winding window with height H and length L representing the area on a bobbin or coil through which the windings pass can be calculated  Again, if the values  H and L are multiplied, H TIMES L = A ,  then the area of the winding window  is now determined. Considerate it as a cross-sectional view of the coil windings with the ends of each wire being viewed as a cross-section or circle

Something like this:

IIOOOOOOOOOOOOII
IIOOOOOOOOOOOOII
IIOOOOOOOOOOOOII

--representing 3 layers of wire with 12 wraps (the II symbolizing the  coil dividers)3 layers of wire by 12 wires wide or 36 turns or wraps of wire around a bobbin.

A thinner gauge wire can have more windings on the same size bobbin, as below:

IIooooooooooooooooooII
IIooooooooooooooooooII
HooooooooooooooooooII

In this example, a thinner wire could be wound 18 times on the same length of bobbin. So the thinner the wire, the greater the number of winds per layer. Also the number of layers would be greater. with thinner wire.

Intuitively a bobbin wound with thinner wire will have more turns than one wound with a thicker wire.

Short-cut to determine the number of winds on coils

Basic Method

1. Determine the length  of the coil bobbin  L
2. Determine the diameter of the wire that s wound upon the bobbin. W
3. Determine the height of the winding  H
4  Divide the length of the coil bobbin by the diameter of the wire is used in winding the coil    L/W
5. Divide the height of the coil winding by the diameter of the wire used in winding the coil     H/W

Application to the Rectangular and Hexagonal Winding Methods

Rectangular Method

Since the wires in a rectangular winding are not offset as in the hexagonal winding method: Thus ,
 
L/W equals the number of winds across the length of the bobbin and,
H/W equals the number of layers of winds of the bobbin

Let's try a quick calculation with coils 0'905 inches long and 0.5 inches in thickness and using 22 gauge wire  (0.0254 inches) and rectangular winding

0.905 inches divided by 0.0254  = 35.9,    0.5 divided by 0.0254 inches  = 19.7  ,   therefore the number of winds on this    pickup coil with rectangular winding ( after rounding)
is   36 times  20 or 720 winds for rectangular winding method

Now let's try a quick calculation  with coils 0.905 inches long and  0.5  inches in thickness and using 22gauge AWG wire (0.0254 inches) and hexagonal  winding.

Now since the rectangular winding is not the moats efficient use of space of the winding window ( The hexagonal method allows for more winds per  given area
of winding area)   the figure of 720 winds is modified by the multiplying this  figure by  1.1547, yielding  831  winds possible for the hexagonal method

The packing ratio for hexagonal windings 0.9069  The packing ratio for rectangular winding is 0.785\

0.9069 divided by 0.7854 equals 1.1547  (the ratio of packing fractions)
720 times 1.1547 yields  831 as an approximate number of windings per pickup coil using the hexagonal winding  method
As a verification of this  calculation on line follow link to Engineers toolbox and use 0.905 inches by 0.5/inches with a wire diameter of 0.025


https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/circles-within-rectangle-d_1905.html
Those calculations show 660 and 770 winds for the rectangular and hexagonal  windings respectively    about 92% of the other figures obtained with the other method


the values by ththe online 781 and 684   winds so the figures seem to be in the same ball park!!
E = 4.44 x F x N x Φm ……
expanding....

E = 4.44 x F  x N x Bm x A … [ because  (Φm = Bmax]

rearranging,  to solve for  Bm......   Bm = E divided by(  4.44 x F x N x A)


SOLVING FOR A VALUE MAGNETIC FLUX IN THE MAGNETIC GAS OF ONE TIER EPG

rearranging,  to solve for  Bm......   Bm = E divided by(  4.44 x F x N x A)

E  = voltage unknown
F  = supply frequency  Hz/sec  known 60 Hz
N = number of turns     known 831
A = cross sectional area in square meters known  0.0001406 Meters squared calculated for( 0.5  OD type K)
Bm = peak  magnetic flux density in Weber / meter squared or T tesla    use estimate for six tier system 1/6 the BetaMax?
K = 4.44
 
V = 4.44  x F x N x A x B   
V = 4.44 x 60 Hz  x 831 x 0.000146  x  4.2   =  414
Is414 volts a reasonable value   440 VOLTS ??? OR is flux value only ONE SIXTH OF THE MULTITIER SYSTEM??    .166 X 414   138 V  CLOSE TO MAINS  120 V?

This was using maximum winding of 831, but what value is OBTAINED FOR  RANDOM WINDING AS INDICATED BY OBSERVARION OF THE HIG RESOLUTION PHOTOS?
Stanley Meyer's  Multiple-Tier EPG as seen in the available imagery,(see attachment 1) shows vertical connections between the tiers.

One suggested design improvement to reduce flow turbulence is to angle the connection tubes between the tiers

By the use of  standard 45 degree angled pipe connectors, an angled connection tube between tiers would be possible..

Since the angle of the resulting connecting tubes would be 45 degrees, the draining of ferrofluid and flow of the mag-gases would be improved,

The resulting likely increased velocity would result in an increase amount of induced current in the pickup coils Since some the present designs and replications have an inter-tier spacings of 15.3 cm, the connecting tubes would

need to be increased or multiplied by the cosecant of 45 degrees or a factor  of 1.414 yielding 21.6 cm. This would increase the flow distance each tier in the modeling by about 1.5%, which is felt to

be outweighed by the expected increase in flow rate..


The cross-sectional area of the spiraled tubing is an important factor but as per documents the velocity is directly related to power output in the power output calculations.   So the suggestion is certainly worthy of consideration.
      see attachment 2

 On the three phase systems, to maintain similarity of construction in the six tier  models, there is no need to increase TH1 because despite the 45 degree angle in tier 1 connector  tube (part THC1), tangent of 45 degrees is still 1.00.  The inter-tier spacing
in the construction  spreadsheet should be the same, although the construction materials list would need to be  adjusted as wel as the parts lists.
 
     
 A: good catch sandia24, ill  take a look the figure is off by of a factor of 1000, it may be because of a Teslsa to Weber conversion
      Weber to Tesla   or cm squared to meter squared conversion error??
the 45 angle connections are not coplanar because of the offset of the enter and exit openings between the two tiers being connected. Basically if you are looking from the top of th You can moving have the coplanar arrangement but this means the gas/slurry would
moving clockwise with every other tier moving counterclockwise. The  idea is to have the drainage of the gas/slurry draining as water does as it goes down a sink and not to change direction. For the slurry systems especially, you want to take advantage o gravitation  without introducing  turbulence from oppositional flow direction of course  the length of the tier connecting tubes need to be adjusted to allow for the offset angle For the typical 15cm inter tier spacing , the offset is about 2.5 cm
 To take advantage of the momentum of the ferro-fluid as it drain In the UK and across the pod in the US, the pipe  bends are either 45 or 90 degrees so I think that the 45 degree solution is the most practical in terms of part acquisition. I'm not sure about the drainage direction.  Depending on the hemisphere , direction of maelstrom or whirlpools tend  to be CW in one and CCW in the other but with the assembly  be mindful of the  direction  of the spiraled tiers with the top tier having the inlet closest recovery tube Top down flow consistent with Coriolis effect.
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3. Number of winds Circle Packing theory   see Wikipedia KNOWN

Once the length and height of the winding window. are determined it is necessary to consider the method of winding to obtain estimates of the number of turns per pickup coil.  The use of Circle Packing Theory
is of use for this problem..
Since the gauge of  the wire can be estimated with a good amount of precision ,the use of circle packing theory (see wiki) theory can be used to determine the number of turns that can fit through this winding window on a bobbin. 

One factor that is very useful in calculations, is that wires come in standard  thicknesses or diameters. For convenience the AWG  (American Wire Gauge) is used in electrical and electronic work, Electrical wiring in the U.S. is often 10,12 or 14 AWG for house wiring .Electronic work is often  uses 18,22, or 30  AWG gauge wire. Whatever the reason, the smaller the AWG number, the thicker or larger the diameter of wire!! The reason this helps in photogrammetry, is that the gauges are discrete values.

Table 1.

AWG      Diameter in inches           AWG     Diameter in Inches
10           .1019                                 20           .0320
12           .0808                                 22           .0254
14           .0641                                 24           .0201
16           .0508                                 26           .0159
18           .0403                                 28           .0126
                                                         30           .0101

The 16 gauge wire is about 25% thicker than 18 gauge
The 22 gauge wire is about 25% thicker than 24 gauge

Not to get too technical, but this is a logarithmic scale,  but the important  concept is that the PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GAUGES IS LARGE in relation to the PRECISION achievable in photogrammetry  The precision of the photogrammetric method is often less than 2 to 5%.

This means for a given photogrammetric distance is it easier to pick out the exact gauge of wire

PACKING FRACTION

There is a branch of mathematics which describes how many circles of uniform size can be drawn in a given area.
 It goes by several names but let's just call it Circle Packing Theory.    see Wikipedia article

By determining the winding window size, the  appropriate circle packing  fraction can be used to determine a close estimate of the number of windings per coil if the gauge is known.

However, the method or way the wire is wound is important in the calculations. An estimate of number of windings on the pickup cores is necessary

1. One method of winding coils is hexagonal winding, with the layers arranged in a honeycomb pattern when viewed in cross-section.

2. Another  type of winding is known as square or rectangular winding has each layer of winding with turns directly on top the wires in the layer beneath with no offset.

3. And thirdly,  there is a random type of winding with lots of random cross overs and gaps.

The hexagonal packing is the densest  method of winding coils with a value of   (Pi divided by 6) times ( the square root of 3) or .9069  with approximately 91% of the winding area  occupied by wire with the balance of the area being occupied by gaps between the wires.
 
Square geometry winding with each winding of wire directly on top the layer below ( No offset)  has a value of 0.7853.  It is not as close wrapped or dense as the optimum  hexagonal winding method.. The values of  ( Pi divided by 4 )is the value for the  square geometry method of winding.   --- 0.785

A random wind often a more gaps but the packing ratio is highly dependent on the size of the wire relative the length and width of the winding window.  It varies a great deal in practice   usually (about 75 to 83 percent)  The first two methods are highly structured and as a result can be described discretely. A random  winding method has more variability and thus intrinsically a wider range of values depending on the gauge of the wire and it relation to the total size of the winding window

Circle Packing  Factors -- Percent of winding window occupied by wire
 
Hexagonal winding            90.69      ( Pi divided by 6) times (Square root of 3)                        Ref
Square winding                  78.53       (Pi divided by 4)                                                               Ref
Random                              Highly gauge dependent  (as gauge decreases, percent increases.)
                                            Random winding will have a packing percent usually less than the optimum 90.6 percent (usual Range 75 to 85 percent) Ref

Square winding method

A square with one inch one each side, the area is one square inch.
If square winding is used in the bobbin,  78.53 percent of the square  is covered  if viewed as a cross-section
But if a closely packed honeycomb winding is used, about 91 percent of the cross-sectional area will be consist of wire.

 Explanation and derivation of factors

 The mathematics regarding the circle packing formula for hexagonal or honeycomb winding is daunting and can be found in more detailed discussions on the the internet.    ref
The packing factor is  0.9069 with comes from the  formula  (Pi divided by 6)  times (the square root of 3)

A circle one inch in diameter will have an area of  0.7853 square inches.---   radius squared times Pi (0.5 times 0.5times 3.1416 )   = .0.7853
If this circle is placed in a one square one inch on  each side, it will  contact the sides of the square in four, which is exactly whet we see  in a cross-section of a coil
wound in the square or rectangular method.
 
To understand  random winding factors, consider two equally sized sheets of sandpaper. One is coated coarse grade grit, the other coated  with a fine grit used
 for final sanding.  The  arrangement of the sand grains is random in both cases but there are fewer grains of sand on the coarse paper and many more grains of  sand
on the finer grit paper. And then consider extremely fine grit  with a grit rating of 1000 or 1200.Essentially nearly 100 percent of the paper is covered with the grit!!
[
SO IN SOME CASES IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF TURNS---
IN SOME CASES EMPIRICAL METHODS OR TEST WINDINGS MIGHT BE NECESSARY.

As an example if the winding window is 1 square inch and the AWG  is 22, and the tighter hexagonal winding factor is used(0.906) then  0.906 square inches of that window is occupied by the area of the wire..
The cross-sectional area of AWG 22 is 0.0005 inches per turn. Thus, 0.9069 square inches of turns divided by 0.0005 square inch per turn equals approximately1814 turns.
 
With precision or square winding a factor of 0.7853 instead of 0.9069 can be used. This results in an estimate of 1571 turns through 1 inch square window.
 The lower number of turns is expected since the. coil winding is not as densely wound.

Rule of Thumb     .785/.906   winding factor ratio    ration of  rectangular to hexagonal winding factors.
1571 divided by 1814  is  0.866, so with all other factors remaining the same  a bobbin wound with  rectangular winding will have about 87% of the turns of a bobbin wound with hexagonal winding
.
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Can the available data from photogrammetry, information  various manuals and electronic formulas help  in understanding and designing EPG systems?? YES!!
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4. Velocity of Liquid or Gas[/b KNOWN

In the Dealership Sales, Manual, Stan Meyer considered the velocity of the magnetized gas as                 
an important factor for the  power output of the EPG.                       see Ref..  EPG velocity doc.

Since the Canadian Patent Number CA1213671A1   titled "Electrical Particle Generator" mentions
 "slurries",  an examination of liquid flow may yield additional insight into mode of operation of the EPG devices. .   Ref. ionizationx.com

In the Mechanical Drive EPG  had a velocity of 50 ips (inches per second)   or  1.27 m/s (meters/sec)  Ref.  EPG velocity doc
Adjustment of the pump speed is made using a rheostat to vary input voltage.  Russ Greis developed an clever "breadboard"
with each coil having a jumper connection on both ends of the coils allowing for varied parallel or series connections.
     
Thus a different voltage or amperage could be adjusted for a particular application  (using the  magnetic slurry)

The Mag-Gas Plasma EPGs  (both the 6 and 7 tier systems operated  at 90 ips  or  2.29 m/s       Ref . EPG velocity doc.

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5 Strength of Magnetic Flux] CAN BE CALCULATED


Because of lower magnetic susceptibility of gases vs slurries the multi-tier devices needed to be operated at higher speed.
This is based on the observation that the  magnetic susceptibility in ferro-fluids is directly related to the percentage of magnetite  Ref needed
The number of turns can  be increased to compensate for the lower flux values in the multiple tier systems.  In the multiple tier systems this is
exactly what is observed. The increased number of windings(36000) and increased volume of core (at least six times greater because of multiple tiers
is also another way of compensating\for a lower flux value and to create higher power output  design  power 44Kw to 66 Kw)

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The electrical particle generators( EPGs) should be thought of as a very efficient transformer as well as a generator

Similarities between the types of EPGs

An examination of the available images seems to indicate:

1. The presence of input energy from a wall outlet  About 120 volts alternating current  60 cycle/sec (US). Wall outlets often have 10 or 15 Amp circuit breakers or fuses   (max 1200 to 1800 watts input)?
2. A spiraled core consisting of copper pipe or tubing  (non-magnetic)
3. A core surrounded by  multiple coils of wire
4. A device that circulates a liquid, gas or slurry  (mechanical pump, linear magnetic pump)
5 A method of controlling the rate of flow  of the magnetic slurry or gas.
6 Magnetic Alignment coils in some cases
7. Electronic circuity

MAIN DISCUSSION FOLLOWS BELOW

DETERIMING VALULES OF MAGNETIC FLUX IN ELECTRICAL PARTICLE GENERATORS

GOAL Applying known values or range of values to the equation to determine operating characteristics
and flux values of the EPG systems

VARIABLE  LIST AND VALUE RANGE

VARIABLE                                                                                                                    VALUE                           
                                 
V1 = velocity of magnetic field movement per second  KNOWN                                            50-90 ips
N1 = number of twists per unit length  spiral divider per unit length                                                                0.3 - 1.2         
T - number of tiers  KNOWN                                                                                                           1-7   
color=red]N3 = value of magnetic field strength [/color]   UNKNOWN                                      To be calculated .
F = value of the frequency pulsing alignment coils for dyne-axis of magnetic field  KNOWN    60 Hz/sec
N4=  number of coils per tier   KNOWN                                                                                          1 - 58         
N5 = number of turns in each coil KNOWN                                                                                  200-12000     
N6 = number of core sectors enclosed by pick-up coil         KNOWN                                               3- 4                                                                                                                                                                         
A= cross-sectional area of tubing used in EPG tier (in  sq inches)  and sq inches per SINGLE pipe core              select value from table below

Outside Diameter   0.5 inch  (1/2 )inch
       
A1  Type K     0.218 sq inches    0.0001406 sq meters
A2  Type L      0.233 sq inches    0.0001503 sq meters

 
Outside Diameter  0.625 inch   (5/8) inch

A3  Type K
A4  Type L

Outside Diameter  0.75 inches   (3/4)inch
A5
A6

Power Input Variables)

Circulation of magnetic material                                                                        no more than pump wattage for single tier
W1 = watts required for initiation of flow    ( Initial inertial load)                                 Rheological, mass density factors important
W2= steady state power load for mag-media circulation                                                                          see appendix 
W3 = dyne-axis load                                                                                                                                 see  appendix 
P1    Power for control circuits.      Low voltage low amperage transistor circuits

Known values

By applying the known estimates of the various variables, it should be able to calculate the flux values in working EPG devices.

 
Stated  design output  was 220 VAC @ 200- 300 amps       ( per Deer Creek Seminar notes)
 
To solve for N3. At one of the conferences in 2019 ( SMC 2019 Bremen Ohio), it was proposed that the Transformer EMF  equation might
 be used in the mathematical model of the Meyer EPG series regarding the flux density problem.

Through photogrammetry the  maximum number of turns , number of coils, diameter and volume of the core magnetized
 slurry/gas can be determined. Since the output power, velocity, and frequency are known with some precision. it may be possible to arrange the transformer EMF equation to obtain a Beta Max for the flux density!!
                                           
Another observation was made at the 2019 Bremen Conference that the larger the core volume, the lower value of the magnetic saturation
 could be in the core and still maintain the same power output. This is because the total power output for the device is dependent in part  upon the total amount of flux present or contained  in the magnetic core.

If the other design factors such as the number of coils, number of winds and same velocity of the magnetic gas or slurry are held constant,
 the limitations of the maximum level of  magnetic saturation of the EFH series ferrofluids can be mitigated. To increase power output scale up
 the volume of the  transformer core and the magnetic saturation can be lower and still provide the design power output.
While the 400 Hz mil-spec converters are still an option for the magnetic drives, if operating frequency matches the 50 or 60 Hz
standard for output for electricity for residential use the need for frequency conversion is eliminated.
           
Ferro fluids and Pump Sizing

"Oil" based ferro-fluid characteristics            see attachments
   
1. Saturation Magnetization vs Magnetic Particle Concentration of Magnetite

 There is a direct linear relationshipbetween how much magnetic saturation (strength) and the  percent of magnetite in suspension. (see appendix) 
     
2.  Although the magnetic saturation ( Ms ) vs % magnetite is linear, the rheological ("thickness or viscosity" characteristics are not.
 At concentrations of more than 10% magnetite, there is a rapid increase in viscosity.

3   Ferro-tec(r) only had 2  viscosity Educational Ferrofluids EFH at the time of Stan Meyer's research EFH1 and EFH- 4.
 EFH -1 had the most saturation but was the thinnest of the two choices.

 viscosities so these were examined because a greater number of data points  were available.   
It is seen that in the EFH series that the EFH-1 has the highest Ms/ viscosity ratio.
In the EMG series EMG-905 has the highest Ms to viscosity ratio  (Magnetic strength related to ease of pumping)

Stan Meyer was likely looking for a Ferrofluid that maximized Ms in relation to viscosity
If the ferrofluid is too thick it might show greater resistance to pumping
If the ferrofluid is too thin it does not maximize the Ms needed for power generation

There appears to be a "Goldilocks zone" not too thick to pump and not too weak in terms of
the magnetic saturation of flux limits   (about 400 Ms. in EFH and EMG series)

For the oil based  (actually  a type of kerosene) ferrofluids having a magnetic susceptibility
of 400 gauss seem to be optimum.in terms of  magnetic susceptibility in relation to viscosity.

That being said, it is very likely that ferrofluids were tried in the mechanical drive
EPG and possibly in other EPG types.

Since output data is only available for the 6Tmaggas EPG and for the velocity of the magnetic medium,
 one approach to determine the flux in the 6 multi-tier system as if EFH-1 was present and then scale down to the magnetic
 pump system  and volume of EFH-1at the stated velocity and use a calculated flux density to determine output
 characteristics of the  magnetic pump  devices.
The sizing of the bus bars, the parallel  arrangement of the pick-up coils and the  breakdown voltage of the insulation
might put some upper limits to how it was being operated and limits to the possible voltages and amps produced.

EPG Design

     Design output  220 VAC at 300 amps  =  44,000 to 66,000 watts

    Calculations
                      So now let's assign values to some of the variables....
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 Pump Selection 
   Cross sectional area is calculated as follows:

                  1. Determine the diameter of the tubing    0.5" obtained by photogrammetry  0.5 outside diameter
                     also confirmed by actual measurement by Don Gabel . (see notebook photos)

                  2. Determine the range of. possible internal diameters     Common types of pipe K L and M that have the
                      same outside diameter but thickness of inner diameter and wall thickness vary.

Stan Meyer may have used  pre-coiled air conditioning or water supply tubing. for ease of construction.
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MECHANICAL DRIVE EPG –FLOW RATE ANALYSIS

As discussed previously, a small electrically powered mechanical pump was used to circulate a permanently magnetized gas or slurry in a closed loop system.
•   From the photogrammetric analysis of available imagery, the pump was identified as a Model B-500 Little Giant®
•   The manufacturer specifications show that the pump was designed to provide a flow rate of 500 gallons per hour when pumping water.
•   Some information is available regarding the flow rate of the magnetic material when the EPG was operating.  The flow rate has been posted on the internet as 50 inches per second.
•   Additionally the outside diameter of the copper tubing has been determined to be 0.500 inches by photogrammetric means


With the preceding information, it may be possible to perform calculations to verify that the pump selected is consistent and capable with reported
 velocity for the magnetic slurry or gas. The original device, now owned by Quad City Innovations was not available for inspection
and for direct measurement but a reasonable estimate of flow rate within a working EPG can be made.


Dimensions and Types of the Copper Tubing

At the time of the construction of the EPG systems, there were, as there are today, three major types of copper tubing
 with letters being assigned to tubing of varying wall thickness. They are designated as type K, L and M, with K having
 the thickest wall and M having the thinnest wall       ref .The Copper Handbook    


Type    O.D.        I..D.        Wall       Cross-Section    Volume
                                                         of  tube               per inch

K      0.500      0.402      0.049   .127                     .127
L      0.500      0.430      0.035   .145                     .145
M      0.500      0.450      0.028   .159                     .159
   
From the tubing chart of copper tubing with outside diameter of 0.500,  type “K ”will be used as an example for the calculations.

The internal cross-sectional  area of type  “K” tubing is 0.127 square inches.
A Thus a cylinder with this size base and 1 inch tall would have a volume of  0.127  cubic inches

Formula
   
Volume of cylinder = area of base times height   ( V = B x H)
Since the velocity has been given as 50 inches per second, a cylinder 50 inches long would have a volume
 equal to the cross sectional area times the height of 50. This represents the volume of liquid pumped past a
given point on the spiraled tubing  in one second.

Conversion factors
3600 seconds / 1 hour
0.0043 U.S. gallons / 1 cubic inch

Example for Type “K” Tubing
1.27 cubic inches/second  times 50 = 6.35 cubic inches per second  6.35 cubic inches/ second  times  3600 sec/ hr. = 22,860 cubic inches/ hour.
Then by applying the appropriate conversion factor, gallons per hour may be obtained.
Thus,  22,860  cubic inches / hour times  0.0043 gallons/ cubic inch equals flow rate of  98.3  gallons per hour for Type ”K” tubing.

In a similar fashion, the flow rate of types L and M are determined.

•   Type ”L” has a flow rate of 7.25 cubic inches/second  which yields a value of 112.5  gallons per hour.

•   Type M tubing has a flow rate of 7.95 cubic inches /second which yields a value of 123.0 U.S. gallons/ hour.

•   Depending on the type of tubing used, the flow rate was calculated to be between  98 and 123 gallons per hour
.
Summary

The Little Giant ® pump was rated at 500 gph so it appears that the specifications of the pump were reasonable for the operation of the mechanical drive EPG.


One observation concerning the publicly available EPG images, is that there do not seem to be joints on the spiraled sections
themselves although the connecting copper pipes to the pumps or other means of moving the slurry or gas are straight.

Stan Meyers was practical and tried to keep things simple, so I believe he just used piping that was already coiled when purchased.

So, using the above reference to get a range of possible values for the cross-sections of the copper tubing and pipes commonly available..
 Copper pipe has three basic wall thicknesses: Type K, Type L and Type  M
  So even though the outside diameter may remain the same, a THICKER wall results in a SMALLER cross-section inside the tube[/color]

So here's the values of cross-sectional area for different copper tubing and pipe in square inches:

Type K    0.218   Type L  0.233   Type M  0.254   
So the cross-sectional area for coiled copper pipe  is between 0.218 and 0.254 square inches

Since the 6 tier system is not available for examination at this time, there is a degree of  imprecision for the cross-sectional area value.
Because the cross-sectional area is used in volume calculations and in the calculation of total magnetic flux for these systems,
the estimates of system performance depend upon the type of tubing used in the construction.
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Length of tubing carrying magnetic slurry/gas

Since the EPGs are of a general circular design, the formula    C = D x Pi  or stated -- Circumference of a circle equals the diameter times Pi .

Now, if you are trying to find the total length of tubing  used in an EPG which is a spiral, for example(for example exactly 3 loops,
then think of this as 3 circles each with a different diameter and circumference The outer loop is longer than the middle loop which is in turn larger the innermost ring of loop.

So roughly speaking, let's say you had an EPG like the Magnetic Drive (Red Pump) System and that by examination or
photogrammetry and it was determined that diameter was 17 inches.

If  1/2  inch tubing is used the construction, what would be the diameter of the middle loop?

The radius  of the middle loop is moved in by 1/2 inch because of the width of the outer loop or to put it another way,
 the diameter of the middle loop would be 16 inches measured across its outside  By a similar reasoning, the innermost loop is  or about 15 inches in diameter.

So the length the spiral is approximately ( 15 + 16 + 17) times Pi.   Now Stan Meyer for reasons of type of pump used (B-500) had input and output connections
 at right angles)then some portions of the spiral had four loops instead of three so adjustments will have to be made for this added length. 
 The total length of is important because this is used in the calculations for the volume of gas or ferrofluid being used and also in the
 calculations for inductance and the number windings for the coils as well as the length of wire required for making the windings.
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Coils and length of wire need for project and per coil 
Length of wire for winding is dependent on the number of channels used for the flowing  magnetic media

                                                                                                                           End View    "Tube" length

A formula for the length a a single wrap around cores adjacent to each other..  Basically the circumference of a single core with an adjustment
for the gaps or bridges between adjacent cores.In the case of a single core the amount of wire per wrap is the circumference  of the core
 and no gaps. When there are multiple cores to be wrapped, the distance or gaps the "bridges" or gaps need to be accounted for.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         [  ( C  )     plus ( gap length)]  times  number of turns
1.A formula for multiple single layer winds around a singular tubular core  of length L             O     diameter of wire times N turns         [( Pi x  D)  plus  (0 x D)]  x N

2. A formula for multiple  single layer winds N around two adjacent tubular cores of length L    OO     diameter of wire times N  turns    [ (Pi x D) plus (2 x D ) ]  x N

3 A formula for multiple single layer around three adjacent tubular cores of length L             OOO    diameter of wire times N turns         [ (Pi x D) plus (4 x D ) ]  x N   
   
4. A formula for multiple single layer winds around 4 adjacent tubular cores                        OOOO   diameter of tube times N turns          [ (Pi x D)  plus (6 x D) ] x  N

The length of the tube determines the total number of wraps possible independent of the number of adjacent tubes

General Formula----  [ ( D plus G) x  N) ]  = ( length of wire needed for one turn around cores ) times( the number of  single layer  turns  around the coil  for the length of bobbin)
D = Outside diameter of  single core tube or pipe
G  =Total Gap length = [ ( Number of pipes -1) times 2]

Let N = Number of single layer wire turns that can be wound around the length of the pickup coil
Let W = the  diameter  or gauge of wire of wire
Let  L = Length of the bobbin or pickup coil
Then ( L divided by W) equals the number of winds


Formula for 1 core                                 O           LW   = Diameter of core times Pi


Regardless on the number of cores  wrapped per turn, the length of the bobbin or inductor tube is solely dependent un the gauge of wire used.
In summary, we now can calculate the length of a single  layer wrap of wire around multiple adjacent cores. and if we multiply that by the number of wraps  or turns that can be wrapped on a given linear length of coil.
I


Also  in determining the total amount of wire needed for construction of SINGLE LAYER coils (such as the multitier gas plasma series of EPGs).    The return conduit s appear to be
on alternate sides of the multi tier epg resulting  the spiral cores  have A3.5  turns. Thus single tier EPG’s appear to  have either 3 1/4 turns or 3 1/2 turns in the spinal so a weighted calculation would need to be done based on the amount of linear distance of three or four adjacent core in a section of the spiral. For the. Plume calculation ferrofluid required The formula needs to be modified for use in the multi-layer coils of the single tier EPG series for each type of winding method and spirals that have portions have three or four core on the same tier.

https://www.bing.com/search?q=emf%20transformer%20equation&cvid=3b27ab152c074c4d870723f5766569be&form=WSBBS

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Calculation to determine number of coil pickup windings  for the multitier 6TmaggasEPG
1 tier is about 17 inches in diameter.   Since the line drawing of the 7 tier system  and photographs show the drain/connecting tubes are 180 degrees
apart so its possible to keep the number of loops for a tier to
be 2.5 3.5 or 4.5 loops or if the connecting tubes are all  exact  integers of loops the connecting tube could be all on one side.
Or the direction of the flow could be counterclockwise  one tier and clockwise in the other tier. So based on the line drawing lets say that that each tier has 3.5 loops

Length of core for 1 tier       [ ( 15+16+17)]times Pi ]  plus( 1/2 times 14 times Pi) = 150.78 + 29.99 =  172.77 inches   6 tiers 1036 inches
172.77 inches  divided by .025 inches per turn  (22 gauge wire by photogrammetry  = maximum 6910 turns per tier
6 times 6910  = 41,460 turns  or if you use exactly 3 loops per tier    150.78 times 6 = 904  inches  904 divided by  0.025 = about 36,191 turns  6 tiers 906 inches

Imagine an inductor with between 36 and 41 thousand turns of wire and  between  75 and 86 feet long !
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E = 4.44 x F x N x Φm ……
expanding....

E = 4.44 x F  x N x Bm x A … [ because  (Φm = BmA)]

rearranging,  to solve for  Bm......   Bm = E divided by(  4.44 x F x N x A)


SOLVING FOR A VALUE MAGNETIC FLUX IN THE MAGNETIC GAS OF A SIX TIER GAS PLASMA EPG

rearranging,  to solve for  Bm......   Bm = E divided by(  4.44 x F x N x A)

E  = voltage
F  = supply frequency  Hz/sec
N = number of turns
A = cross sectional area in square meters
Bm = peak  magnetic flux density in Weber / meter squared or T tesla
K = 4.44
 
V = 4.44  x F x N x A x B or rearranging this and solving for B

B =    V  divided by( 4.44   x  F x  N    x   A)           
                                                                                                                                 
B =  220 divided by 4.44 x60 x 12000 x A       B = 319680 x A     319680x .0001634 sq meters  = 52.2        220/52.2     4.2 webers
The design output is 220 volts at 300 amp draw  66,000 watts  (Watts)           
(W) 220 times 300 amp draw   = 66,000 watts

The cross-sectional area  (A) of the core is between 0.218 and  0.254 square in or (A)  =  1.406 to 1.634  sq cm or 0.0001406 to 0.0001634  square meters

F (frequency) is  60 cycle/ second AC
                                                                         
V (voltage) is 220 volts AC output
                                     
K Constant  = 4.44
                                                                                                           
Solving of Bm =Betamax

Basic equation

  E  = voltage
  F  = supply frequency
  N = number of turns
  A = cross sectional area in square meters
  B = peak  magnetic flux density in Weber / meter squared or T tesla
  K = 4.44
 
   E = 4.44  x F x N x A x B or rearranging this and solving for B

    B =    E  divided by( 4.44   x  F x  N    x   A)           

If the known values are input into the EMF equation for a six tier EPG device--

E =   voltage                          220 VAC
F=    frequency                      60 hertz per second in the US
N=   number of coil turns   11,873

Cross section of inside diameter of copper pipe with different outside diameter  (O.D) and different wall thicknesses K,.L,.and M.
A= cross-sectional area of tubing used in EPG tier (in  sq inches)  and sq inches per SINGLE pipe core
Outside Diameter   0.5 inch
       
A1  Type K     0.218 sq inches    0.0001406 sq meters
A2  Type L      0.233 sq inches    0.0001503 sq meters
A3  Type M     0.254 sq inches    0.0001639 sq meters

A4
A5
A1 =  0. 000468  sq m area     3 channels of pipe  x 0.242 sq inches divided by conversion factor 1550  =  000468 square meters


4.44 = constant

B max  =   220/ 1480  or    0.1486  Wb/M squared  or Tesla for the 5/8" six tier system4.44 times F*N * Beta Max * A
 
Rearranging: Beta Max  =  V  divided by ( 4.44 x F x  N x  A)
       
220 divided by (  4.44 times  60 Hz/sec  frequency times 36191 x .218 A sq inches   =  .00010

NOW HERE'S AN IMORTANT POINT--The Betamax can be LOWER in the magnetic gas/or slurry when the  voltage, frequency, and number of turns is constant WITH the
cross-sectional area being increased. As the denominator increases due
to a larger diameter tube being used ,the Betamax can be lower and still yield the same power at the same voltage. Essentially the Betamax, the maximum amount of flux flowing the core is inversely related to the area of the transformer core, so if the gas or ferrofluid is limited by MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY by
 increasing the size of the tubing  ,scale up in size and a low Betamax will suffice for same output !!

So now since we have an equation with  5 variables and  one constant and we have good estimates for 4 of the variables, we should be able to solve the equation for a value of magnetic flux
in the ferro=fluid or magnetic gas matrix

V = 220 VAC...
F = supply frequency
N = number of turns
A = cross sectional area in square meters
B = peak  magnetic flux density in Wb / meter squared or T tesla
K = constant

V = 4.44  x F  x N  x A x Beta max,   or rearranging

Beta max  =    V divided by( 4.44 * F *  N * A )           

So  plugging in a few figures for a six tier device with a 5/8" OD copper spiral

E1 = 4.44 x f x N1 Φm ……….. (i)

E1 = 4.44 xf N1 Bm A … [as  (Φm = BmA)]
V = voltage       220 VAC
F=   60 hertz per second in the U.S.
N = 11,870
A =   0. 000468  sq meters area   =    3 channels of pipe  x 0.242 sq inches divided by conversion factor 1550  =  0.000468 square meters
B =   Beta-Max TO BE SOLVED
K = 4.44   ( constant )

Thus B-max  =   220/ (60  x 1480  or  0.1486  Wb/M squared  or Tesla  for the 5/8" six tier system

b]Next Topic Multiple layer coils

 In terms of construction if the cross sectional area is changed because of using a larger diameter tubing
but keeping N number of turns the same and the length of the spiraled coils is the same and other factors the same (same desired output) t because the output is related to the amount of flux of the core, the larger the core in terms of cross section (and volume) means that a lower Beta value in the core of  the upsized EPG can  still result in the desired power output.  Basically if more power is needed the large core can allow for a lower amount of flux to be used if there is a limit to magnetic saturation for the slurry or mag-gas matrix.

This is more useful to calculate wire requirements for the Mechanical Pump EPG .Since it's possible to estimate the thickness of the coils, the length of the original coils, the gauge of the wire and velocity of the ferrofluid 50 ips  and using a flux value estimate a power output for the Mechanical Pump EPG.

Pump sizing

"Oil" based ferro-fluid characteristics            see attachments
   
1. Saturation Magnetization vs Magnetic Particle Concentration of EMG Oil Based Ferrofluids

     There is a direct linear relationship between how much magnetic saturation (strength) and the  percent of magnetite in suspension
       
2.  Although the magnetic saturation ( Ms ) vs % magnetite is linear, the rheological  ("thickness or viscosity" characteristics are not.
At concentrations of more than 10% magnetite, there is a rapid increase in viscosity.

3FH -1 had the greater  magnetic susceptibility but had the  lower viscosity of the two choices

4.  The Ferro-tech EMG series ferro-fluids( a similar Oil Based Ferrofluid) has 5 different types with varied magnetic saturation and viscosities so these were examined because a greater number of data points  were available.   see attachment

It is seen that in the EFH series that the EFH-1 has the highest Ms/ viscosity ratio
In the EMG series EMG-905 has the highest Ms/viscosity ratio

Stan Meyer  was likely looking for a Ferrofluid that maximized Ms in relation to viscosity
If the ferrofluid is too thick it might show greater resistance to pumping

There appears to be a "Goldilocks zone" not too thick to pump and not too weak in terms of the magnetic saturation of flux limits   (about 400 Ms. in EFH and EMG series)

For the oil based  (actually  a type of kerosene) ferrofluids having a magnetic susceptibility of 400 gauss seem to be optimum.in terms of  magnetic susceptibility in relation to viscosity.

tit is very likely that ferrofluids were tried in the mechanical drive EPG and possibly in other EPG types

Since output data is only available for the 6Tmaggas EPG and for the velocity of the magnetic medium,  one approach to determine the flux in the 6  tier
multi-tier EPG system as if EFH-1 was present and then scale down to the magnetic pump system  and volume of EFH-1at the stated
velocity and use a calculated flux density to determine output characteristics of the  magnetic pump  devices.
The sizing of the bus bars, the parallel  arrangement of the pick-up coils and the  breakdown voltage of the insulation might put some
upper limits to how it was being operated and limits to the possible voltages and amps produced.

                        Design output  220 VAC at 300 amps  =  44,000 to 66,000 watts
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Comparing  stated values of C.O.P  ( if no feedback of output power to input power)
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   Cross sectional area is calculated as follows:

                  1. Determine the diameter of the tubing    0.5" obtained by photogrammetry  0.5 outside diameter
                     also confirmed by actual measurement by Don Gabel . (see notebook photos)

                  2. Determine the range of. possible internal diameters     Common types of pipe K L and M that have the
                      same outside diameter but thickness of inner diameter and wall thickness vary.
Stan Meyer may have used  pre-coiled air conditioning or water supply tubing. for ease of construction.

MECHANICAL DRIVE EPG –FLOW RATE ANALYSIS

As discussed previously, a small electrically powered mechanical pump was used to circulate a permanently magnetized gas or slurry in a closed loop system.
•   From the photogrammetric analysis of available imagery, the pump was identified as a Model B-500 Little Giant®
•   The manufacturer specifications show that the pump was designed to provide a flow rate of 500 gallons per hour when pumping water.
•   Some information is available regarding the flow rate of the magnetic material when the EPG was operating.  The flow rate has been posted on the internet as 50 inches per second.
•   Additionally the outside diameter of the copper tubing has been determined to be 0.500 inches by photogrammetric means


With the preceding information, it may be possible to perform calculations to verify that the pump selected is consistent and capable with reported velocity for the magnetic slurry or gas. The original device, now owned by Quad City Innovations was not available for inspection and for direct measurement but a reasonable estimate of flow rate within a working EPG can be made.


Dimensions and Types of the Copper Tubing

At the time of the construction of the EPG systems, there were, as there are today, three major types of copper tubing with letters being assigned to tubing of varying wall thickness. They are designated as type K, L and M, with K having the thickest wall and M having the thinnest wall       ref .The Copper Handbook    


Type    O.D.        I..D.        Wall       Cross-Section    Volume
                                                         of  tube               per inch

K      0.500      0.402      0.049   .127                     .127
L      0.500      0.430      0.035   .145                   .145
M      0.500      0.450      0.028   .159                     .159
   
From the tubing chart of copper tubing with outside diameter of 0.500,  type “K ”will be used as an example for the calculations.

The internal cross-sectional  area of type  “K” tubing is 0.127  square inches.
A cylinder with this size base and 1 inch tall would have a volume of  0.127   cubic inches

Formula
   
Volume of cylinder = area of base times height   ( V = B x H)
Since the velocity has been given as 50 inches per second, a cylinder 50 inches long would have a volume equal to the cross sectional area times the height of 50. This represents the volume of liquid pumped past a point on the spiraled tubing  in one second

Conversion factors
3600 seconds / 1 hour
0.0043 U.S. gallons / 1 cubic inch

Example for Type “K” Tubing
1.27 cubic inches/second  times 50 = 6.35 cubic inches per second  6.35 cubic inches/ second  times  3600 sec/ hr. = 22,860 cubic inches/ hour.
Then by applying the appropriate conversion factor, gallons per hour may be obtained.
Thus,  22,860  cubic inches / hour times  0.0043 gallons/ cubic inch equals flow rate of  98.3  gallons per hour for Type ”K” tubing.

 In a similar fashion, the flow rate of types L and M are determined.
•   Type ”L” has a flow rate of 7.25 cubic inches/second  which yields a value of 112.5  gallons per hour.

•   Type M tubing has a flow rate of 7.95 cubic inches /second which yields a value of 123.0 U.S. gallons/ hour.

•   Depending on the type of tubing used, the flow rate was calculated to be between  98 and 123 gallons per hour
.
Summary

The Little Giant ® pump was rated at 500 gph so it appears that the specifications of the pump were reasonable for the operation of the mechanical drive EPG.  The pump was designed to pump water but in this application a slurry containing magnetic material would be
•   denser
•   have an increased viscosity
•   be susceptible to possible back emf eddy currents reducing flow
•   experience turbulence at sharp bends and at the pump impellers
•   experience back pressure in a closed system
•   be susceptible to magnetic restriction to flow at the alignment coils

As an example, a ferro fluid such as EFH-1  (Ferro-Tech) has a density of 1.21 g/cc, a viscosity of 6  centipoise (cP ) and Saturation Magnetization  (Ms) of 440 Gauss all of which could contribute to a slower flow velocity. Thus it is expected that the flow rate would be less than 500 gallons per hour. However, there is some evidence for ferro-fluids to have lower viscosity under certain circumstances. see ref

Evidence for use of  ferrofluids in the Mechanical Drive EPG
1.The existence of a photograph of another copper spiral with the label 1 ¼  cup 
2.The Pantone® color matching of  spill corrosion to Copper Oleate
3. photographs of EFH-1 in the laboratory

A very useful free reference is The Copper Tubing Handbook which provides the specifications and measurements for copper tubing and pipe.

You can google The Copper Tubing Handbook for the pdf  or just click on this link:

https://pbar.fnal.gov/organizationalchart/Leveling/2004%20water%20cage%20work/Cutubehandbook.pdf
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Reducing resistance to flow

One observation concerning the publicly available EPG images, is that there do not seem to be joints on the spiraled sections
themselves although the connecting copper pipes to the pumps or other means of moving the slurry or gas are straight.
Stan Meyers was practical and tried to keep things simple, so I believe he just used piping that was already coiled when purchased.

So, using the above reference to get a range of possible values for the cross-sections of the copper tubing and pipes commonly available..
Copper pipe has three basic wall thicknesses: Type K, Type L and Type  M
So even though the outside diameter may remain the same, a THICKER wall results in a SMALLER cross-section inside the tube

So here's the values of cross-sectional area for different copper tubing and pipe in square inches:

Type K    0.218   Type L  0.233   Type M  0.254   
So the cross-sectional area for coiled copper pipe  is between 0.218 and 0.254 square inches

Since the 6 tier system is not available for examination at this time, there is a degree of  imprecision for the cross-sectional area value.
Because the cross-sectional area is used in volume calculations and in the calculation of total magnetic flux for these systems, the estimates of system performance depend upon the type of tubing used in the construction.
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Length of tubing carrying magnetic slurry/gas

Since the EPGs are of a general circular design, the formula    C = D x Pi  or stated -- Circumference of a circle equals the diameter times Pi .

Now, if you are trying to find the total length of tubing  used in an EPG which is a spiral, for example(for example exactly 3 loops, then think of this as 3 circles each with a different diameter and circumference The outer loop is longer than the middle loop which is in turn larger the innermost ring of loop.

So roughly speaking, let's say you had an EPG like the Magnetic Drive (Red Pump) System and that by examination or photogrammetry and it was determined that diameter was 17 inches.

If  1/2  inch tubing is used the construction, what would be the diameter of the middle loop?

The radius  of the middle loop is moved in by 1/2 inch because of the width of the outer loop or to put it another way, the diameter of the middle loop would be 16 inches measured across its outside  By a similar reasoning, the innermost loop is  or about 15 inches in diameter.

So the length the spiral is approximately ( 15 + 16 + 17) times Pi.   Now Stan Meyer for reasons of type of pump used (B-500) had input and output connections at right angles)then some portions of the spiral had four loops instead of three so adjustments will have to be made for this added length.   The total length of is important because this is used in the calculations for the volume of gas or ferrofluid being used and also in the calculations for inductance and the number windings for the coils as well as the length of wire required for making the windings.

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epg coil tap termnals.jpg                                                                                         
1. Dealership Sales Manual (Third Edition) 1986  p. J9  or   WFC Memo 418 Electrical Particle Generator  Appendix Fig. 27 " Mechanical Drive EPG
2, Canadian Patent  CA1213671A1 Electrical Particle Generator
3. Image Estate Visit image   jpg   DSC-178               06/13/2009 Top View Mechanical Drive EPG
4. Image Estate Visit image   jpg   DSC-167               06/13 /2009 Top View  EPG
5. Image Estate Visit image   jpg   Linear Drive EPG             2006 visit
6. Image Russ Greis replication Magnetic Drive EPG          Ref open-source-energy.orgStanley Meyer's  Multiple-Tier EPG as seen in the available imagery,(see attachment 1) shows vertical connections between the tiers.

One suggested design improvement to reduce flow turbulence is to angle the connection tubes between the tiers

By the use of  standard 45 degree angled pipe connectors, an angled connection tube between tiers would be possible..

Since the angle of the resulting connecting tubes would be 45 degrees, the draining of ferrofluid and flow of

the mag-gases would be improved,

The resulting likely increased velocity would result in an increase amount of induced current in the pickup coils

Since some the present designs and replications have an inter-tier spacings of 15.3 cm, the connecting tubes would

need to be increased or multiplied by the cosecant of 45 degrees or a factor  of 1.414 yielding 21.6 cm.

This would increase the flow distance each tier in the modeling by about 1.5%, which is felt to

be outweighed by the expected increase in flow rate..


A:  Correct, the cross-sectional area of the spiralled tubing is an important factor but as per documents the velocity
      is directly related to power output in the power output calculations.   So the suggestion is certainly worthy of consideration.
      see attachment 2

A: Correct, on the three phase systems, to maintain similarity of construction in the six tier  models, there is no need to increase TH1
     because despite the 45 degree angle in tier 1 connector  tube (part THC1), tangent of 45 degrees is still 1.00.  The inter-tier spacing
     in the construction  spreadsheet should be the same, although the construction materials list would need to be  adjusted as well
     as the parts lists.
 
     
 A: good catch sandia24, ill  take a look the figure is off by of a factor of 1000, it may be because of a Teslsa to Weber conversion
      Weber to Tesla   or cm squared to meter squared conversion error??

A: for sandia24   Yes, the 45 angle connections are not coplanar because of the offset of the enter and exit openings
                            between the two tiers being connected. Basically if you are looking from the top of the multi tier
                            unit, you are joining an end of the spiral which is closer to the recycling tube to the opening of
                            the tier below which is further away from the recycling tube.

                            You can moving have the coplanar arrangement but this means the gas/slurry would
                            moving clockwise with every other tier moving counterclockwise.

                            The  idea is to have the drainage of the gas/slurry draining as water does as it goes down a sink
                            and not to change direction. For the slurry systems especially, you want to take advantage of
                            gravitation  without introducing  turbulence from oppositional flow direction

                            of course  the length of the tier connecting tubes need to be adjusted to allow for the offset angle
                            For the typical 15cm inter tier spacing , the offset is about 2.5 cm

A for sandia24    I think so because you want to take advantage of the momentum of the ferro-fluid as it drains
                            In the UK and across the pod in the US, the pipe  bends are either 45 or 90 degrees so I think
                            that the 45 degree solution is the most practical in terms of part acquisition. I'm not sure about
                           the drainage direction.  Depending on the hemisphere , direction of maelstrom or whirlpools
                          tend  to be CW in one and CCW in the other but with the assembly  be mindful
                           of the  direction  of the spiraled tiers with the top tier having the inlet closest to the central
                           recovery tube Top down flow consistent with Coriolis effect.??
 
7. Image Estate Visit image jpg DSC-179 B500 pump with 90 degree angle inlet and outlet ports-
8. Image Estate Visit
9. EPG Electrical Magnetic Gas Accelerator   Fig. 28.  Line Drawing  Dealership Manual  p J9 and WFC Memo 418 Appendix
10. EPG Photon Gas Accelerator                     Fig. 29.  Dealership Manual   p..J12 and WFC Memo 418 Appendix
11  EPG Magnetic Field Spin Generator          Fig. 30.  Dealership Manual and WFC Memo 418 Appendix
12.Image video clip from Deercreek Sermon and Seminar (Part 1)
13.
14.
15.
16. EPG  velocity doc.
17.
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« Last Edit: January 15, 2022, 04:11:55 am by jim miller »