Author Topic: Most efficient tubelar cell from Wouter Oosthuizen waterfuelforall  (Read 508 times)

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For a beginner the Smacks booster is recommended. To progress to a tubular or plate cell and others please study the faculty section below to understand plate cell booster dynamics. Please read the FACULTY section detailing booster operation prior to construction to understand the fundamentals of boosters, this may also clear up allot of questions you have on designs.

Tubular Cell designs

The advantages / disadvantages are as given below: Stainless steel resistant-Hydrogen boost explosion

1. In tubular design the outer case is made of 4" SS pipe. So at the starting time it takes
heat from the engine compartment and increases the efficiency of the booster.
However when the water temp

inside the booster is higher then it dissipates the heat to atmosphere from the 4" outer casing. With this effect the water temp inside the booster never cross beyond 60 deg centigrade.

2. In a tubular design the space between each tube acts as separate compartment so

there is not current leakage / energy loss.

You can provide a small hole at the bottom of the tube so that water gets leveled
out. However with this you will be loosing efficiency of the booster.

It is a compact design and can easily fit into the car engine compartment.

The major disadvantage of the system is unequal surface area from inner most tube to outer most tube. But the voltage drop difference is not very high from inner most cells to outer most cells and is well within 2 volts / cell in 6 cell design.

WaterFuel for All Booster



Email Website

Panacea coverage Back round Information

This part of the document has been prepared by Panacea-BOCAF, a non-profit organization advocating clean energy. The information is a compilation of posts made by Wouter Oosthuizen on the forum www.waterfuelforall.com.

Wouter had received frequent mails from "Newbie's" asking advice about what would be a good and reliable booster to be used to improve fuel consumption. As a result, over the past months Wouter conducted his own (public disclosure) research in this regard. Wouter closely studied a number of commercially available boosters and evaluated their performance, strengths and weaknesses whilst trying to find a balance between optimal performance and reliability at an affordable price.

Quote- My goal is to provide the public with a reliable and efficient BUT also affordable electrolyzer. The majority of people out there, do not have the skill and /or specialized equipment to build a proper series cell with little current leakage.- Wouter End Quote



Open source engineer - Wouter Oosthuizen

Wouter wishes to give full credit of the design to Fran Giroux who has been using a similar design since 2001. While Wouter's design is similar to Fran's, it does have some subtle but important differences.

The most important difference is the usage of a stainless steel washer to connect the inner tube with the centre rod. This feature increases the total area of the centre electrode, so that the centre electrode consists of a rod and tube combined. Since the current flow in a tubular cell is limited to the surface area of the smallest electrode, this becomes crucial. By increasing the inner electrode surface area, we are decreasing the current density of the centre electrode, thereby leading to a centre electrode that will not overheat as quickly as a rod on its own.

Another subtle difference between the WaterFuelForAll (WFA) design and Fran's design includes the usage of s/steel rods to pull together and close of the cell with nylon blocks whereas Fran's design uses soft rubber seals. This change was made because it was found that the rods/nylon block combination is more robust than softer rubber seals and

the rigid nylon blocks also allow for the use of a rigid water opening and water cap for easier refill. The WFA booster also uses its own unique design for inner spacers for easy assembly and accurate spacing of the tubes. Another difference between the WFA booster is that Fran's design doesn't use equal spacing in between all the tubes, whereas the WFA booster does.

Wouter has made these boosters available already built at an affordable price in order to fiancé further open source hydroxy technology for all, please consider helping, more information can be found on the panacea coverage page.

Wouter has started with the manufacture of three models:

WaterfuelForall Standard max 25A, 20A continuous, 1.5-2.0 lpm @ 20A

WaterfuelForall Delux max 30A, 25A continuous, 1.9-2.5 lpm @ 25A

WaterfuelForall SuperDelux , rated 25A continuous, 13.8V and will be the preferred
model for large trucks. Gas production will be +-2.5lpm @ 25A

(gas production depends on whether booster is brand new or properly run in and is sustainable for 8+ hours continuously without overheating)



From left to right :

WaterfuelForAll Deluxe - Weight 4.1 kg Height including cap 28cm (11") Width 11.5cm (4.5")

WaterfuelForAll Standard - Weight 3.3kg Height including cap 24cm (9.5") Width 11.5cm (4.5")

Heavy duty bubbler - Weight 0.8kg Height 27cm (10.5") Width excluding connectors 10cm (4")

Standard water trap/bubbler - Weight 0.18kg Height 20cm (8") Width excluding connectors 9cm (3.5")

Both models area 6 series cell tubular design, with same efficiencies, and gas output just varying according to Amps. All tubes will be 316 grade (ISO certified) with wall thickness 1.5mm (0.06").

Spacing in between tubes is +-5mm (0.2") for maximum gas production. (Spacing less than 3mm inhibits the bubble flow at higher Amps) Plastics being used is Nylon, HDPE and polypropolene.

The standard model is 23cm (9") high and the Deluxe is 28cm (11") high, with both having a diameter of just over 10cm (4"). The Standard model is currently advertised at USD 195, the Deluxe is USD 295 (excluding shipping). This price includes the electrolyzer, a standard water trap/bubbler and all necessary hoses.

A heavy duty bubbler is available at an additional USD30. AWG 8 cables with soldered connectors, a 30A relay, amp meter, in-line fuse and switch is available at an additional USD 50.

The tubes are already cross-hatch sanded on the outside as well as the larger ones on the inside.

All units are fully assembled and individually bench tested for a period of at least 2 hours, before leaving our workshop. So you can start using it right away, although the booster will only reach its peak gas production after about 30 hours of operation.

When receiving a brand new unit, all the seals are still settling. During fabrication one does not want to over-tighten the screws, so it is likely that some of the screws might need to be tightened a little bit more, once the unit had a chance to settle. The reason why all screws should be properly tightened (but NOT overly tight!) is because we want to make sure that all seals are 100% tight. Hydroxy has got the tendency to leak through places where nothing else will leak, and the mere fact that the booster does not leak water, is no guarantee that it does not leak hydroxy!

In fact, Wouter recommends that before you install the unit in a car, you should first run it standalone at full power e.g. +-20A and then put the complete unit in a bucket/bin of water to make sure that you do not see any small hydrogen bubbles escaping from any seal including the cap. With regard to the cap, you should also tighten it properly after a water refill, for the same reason mentioned above.

Wouter would like to emphasize that when comparing the quality and prices of various boosters, one must always compare apples with apples. The WaterfuelForAll boosters' tubes are made of 316 grade stainless steel (ISO certified) which is more expensive and more corrosive resistant than the cheaper 302/304 grades. The tubes have a 1.5mm wall thickness (0.06"), which is almost double the thickness than the electrodes of many other boosters. This also contributes to the fact that the boosters do not overheat. Note

a brand new cell with no conditioning should be able to produce at least 1.9 lpm @ 25A. You should expect to see an improvement after 30 hours of use.

The "small" Standard size booster keeps enough water to last for 8 hours at a time. So you have to check your water level at least every 6-8 hours of driving time. Thus, the typical commuter that drives +-1.5 hours per day, only needs to check his water level once every 5 days, e.g. while refilling with gas.The Deluxe and Super Deluxe unit keeps enough water to last 10-12 hours of driving time.

For trucks

On request, Wouter has expanded his range of boosters. Wouter has added an extra large Super DeLuxe model which will be 14.5" tall and 4.5" wide. It will be rated 25A continuous, 13.8V and will be the preferred model for large trucks. Gas production will be +-2.5lpm @ 25A. To operate this unit at 25A continuous, the unit must be installed in such a manner that it will receive a constant airflow while driving, as to assist with the cooling. The Super Deluxe booster will be priced at USD 395. (this price does not include the wiring and bubbler) Thus for less than $1200, you can buy 3 Super Deluxe units and have a system that produces 7.5lpm @ 75A continuously without overheating!

Distributors wanted!

In order for Wouter to help finance the advancement of OPEN SPOURCE hydroxy technology plus provide the public servie of dissemination of boosters at low cost, Wouter states: Dear Waterfuel Enthusiast - The past few days I have been approached by several people who wants to become a WaterfuelForAll booster agent so please forgive me for writing a general letter!



As you all know by this time, we have only very recently launched the WaterfuelForAll (WFA) booster. Whereas the design is the result of many months of research, the proof is in the real-time hydroxy gas production (with resulting fuel saving and emission benefits) and users quickly realized that the WFA booster is running circles around the competition.

I mention only the most important reasons:

The WFA booster does not overheat within 2 hours as many other commercially
available boosters. (Thus makes it ideal for heavy duty use e.g. long distance trucks)

Having an outer casing made of 1.5mm (+-0.06") thick stainless steel, it is much
stronger than most other booster designs and can even withstand a flashback without
a bubbler, even though a bubbler could still be added for additional reassurance

With a maximum gas production of up to 1 liters per minute for every 10A @ 13.8V
consumed, the design is extremely efficient and found a delicate balance between
efficiency, robustness, reliability for implementation in an automobile

The booster is made of the more expensive 316 grade stainless steel electrodes with
wall thickness of 1.5mm. Thus the electrodes are more corrosive resistant than the
cheaper and less corrosive resistant 302/304 grade used by many other boosters.

Also the wall thickness of 1.5mm (+-0.06") is much thicker than the plate thickness of
most other boosters, which is part of the reason why the booster does not overheat. In
short, the WFA booster is built to last a lifetime

Despite the quality materials used, it is still priced competitively

It is a very compact design and even "looks" nicer than other boosters!

From the above it is clear the design has got the potential to become the standard for boosters and thus it comes as no surprise that people want to become agents! Also, it is our duty to ensure that this technology gets through to the man in the street as soon as possible.

Thus, over the last few days I sat down and evaluated different possibilities to offer potential agents. The first possibility would be for an agent to import the boosters in quantity at a reduced price and may then sell it at a price determined by them self. Yet this option would only be viable for agents that have got the facilities to service larger fleets of vehicles and it would also require a substantial cash flow upfront to pay for the boosters.

Most individuals might not be in the position to do this and thus I had to come up with another option.

I propose the following: Smaller agents can simply act as a marketer to generate new orders. These orders could either be placed on a web-site run by the agent himself or on our own web-site www.waterf uelfora ll.com

The order will be passed on to us with a reference as to identify the agent responsible for the order and we will execute the order by sending the unit directly to the customer.

For his effort, the agent will receive a 10% commission for each unit sold as a direct result of his marketing/referral efforts.

Thus, no upfront cash is needed although it would be expected from an agent to buy and install at least 1 unit for him self as to make sure that the agent fully understand what the WFA booster is all about.

We know that there are other schemes offering larger commissions, but it is clear that those units are made of inferior materials and are sold with a much larger markup for a start.

(If we were selling our product at twice the price, then we could also offer larger commissions to our agents) In this regard it must be remembered that our objective is not to have money making scheme, but rather to provide the public with a product that will last for years yet at an affordable price. In the long run people will realize that a

booster like the WFA is money much better spend Well that's it!Should you be



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Re: Most efficient tubelar cell from Wouter Oosthuizen waterfuelforall
« Reply #1 on: June 03, 2020, 09:44:32 am »


NEVER touch these tubes with bare hands and ONLY use NaOH or KOH!

There have been various opinions about tubular cells on the internet. In many of these comments a lot of emphasis is placed on the fact that the voltage differential between tubular cells varies compared to square plate cells which have a constant voltage differential between plates. A common argument is that the uneven surface area from anode to cathode increases loss due to uneven current distribution. So the question is: How severe is this effect and what is the net effect on our overall efficiency?

In this regard we do not want to get involved in a debate with anyone. What we do want to do is provide none biased thinking and considerations. A majority of the people who criticizes the tubular cell design has never built one themselves and compared the

real time performance with a square plate series cell. So let's not speculate in theory and on paper, let's just look at the real time performance. By no means are we stating that this is a superior design over the plate cell, we are merely providing real data.

Facts: Bench Tests by Wouter have shown that the Waterfuelforall 6 series tubular cell generates 2lpm @ 20A, 13.8VDC without overheating. If the voltage differentials between cells were that much of an issue as is being portrayed by some, then how is it possible for the tubular cell to achieve such good efficiency figures without overheating!? Note that the following figures are achieved with constant spacing between the tubes:

2lpm x 60 = 120lph

13.8V x 20A = 276Watt

276/120 = 2.3 W/lph

According to Faraday predictions, it should require 2.36 W/LPH of hydroxy gas production, when gas volume is measured at STP. At room temperature this figure changes to 2.16W/LPH. So the tubular 6 series cell performance converts to 93.9% Faraday efficiency. It is not claimed that the voltage differentials have no effect. What is being emphasized is that one can see by these results that the effect clearly has a minor impact on the overall performance of the tubular design.

In this regard one must remember that the voltage is the driving force behind the current. While the inner tubes does have a smaller total area, one does need a little bit more voltage to push through the same amount of current as with larger tubes, and this is exactly the case in a tubular cell, where the voltage differential between the inner tubes is slightly higher than between the outer tubes.

What people do not realize, is that if one was really that concerned about the voltage differential between the tubes, then you could simply have a larger space between the outer tubes and a smaller space between the inner tubes, and then the voltage differentials will be closer to equal everywhere.

E.g. instead of having equal spacing cells 1", 1,5",2",2,5",3",3,5",4", you could have 1", 1.25", 1.5", 2", 2,5", 3", 4". Wouter has done a LOT of real-time testing in this regard and feels that it is unnecessary to complicate things. But this is merely to show that one could easily address the concern if it was really necessary. In this regard t as long as one makes sure that the surface area of the smallest tube is large enough, you will have NO problems!

An example:As a rule of thumb I aim for max 0.15A per square centimeter, because Wouter uses proper 316 grade tubes. (If you are using a stainless steel of a lesser quality I would not recommend going higher than 0.1 A per square centimeter) So the length of

the tubes will be determined by the maximum amount of amps that you want to run your cell at. Obviously the inner tube will have the least area and thus you will be basing your calculations on the inner tube's area, e.g. if you plan to run your cell at max 25 A and we only want max 0.15A/cm2, that imply we need a minimum electrode plate area of 167 cm2 for each tube.

The area of the inner tube is calculated as pi*Diameter*height. So for a 1" inner tube the required Height = 167/(3.14x2.5) = 21.3 cm This will be the length of all the inner tubes and obviously the outer tube will be slightly longer.

Note that if we were trying to achieve resonance, then uneven voltage differentials between cells will have a greater effect and in such instance, Wouter does recommend people to go for a square plate series cell design. But since we are merely performing brute force electrolysis, it is not so much of an issue and we can take advantage of the benefits offered by a tubular design.

One of the biggest advantages of the tubular design compared to the sandwiched series cell design is the fact that the sandwiched series cell can be prone to leaking of water and hydrogen.

Wouter reports that after the 6 series cell design has been conditioned, the gas production has increased to +-3 liters per minute @ 30 amps. The 6 series tubular design stabilizes at +-1 liter per minute gas for every 10 amps consumed, once the cell has been run in properly.

For a concentration of 6 teaspoons (30ml) of lye to 1 liter of water (distilled recommended), the typical temperatures and amp flow for the 6 series cell is:

Amp flow Temperature Gas production

Start 5A Cold 0.5 Ipm

lOmin 7.5A 0.751pm

1/2 hour 10A 1.0 Ipm

1 hour 12A 40 deg C 1.2 lpm

1/2 hour 15A 50 deg C 1.5 lpm

hours 16A 58 deg C 1.6 lpm

hours 17A 65 deg C 1.7 lpm

hours 18A 73 deg C 1.8 lpm

hours 18A 74 deg C 1.8 lpm

hours 18A 75 deg C 1.8 lpm

hours 18A 74 deg C 1.8 lpm

hours 18A 73 deg C 1.8 lpm

One can see that after 4 hours of continuous operation, the temperature stabilizes at +-74 degrees Celsius which is ideal! Should the electrolyzer be used as a booster, then airflow will have a cooling effect on the cell and the booster should stabilize at a lower temperature.

The above figures is for a unit built from 7 tubes with diameters 4" / 3.5" / 3" / 2.5" / 2" / 1.5" / 1" and at least 20cm in length, measured with a water temperature not exceeding 75 degrees Celsius. Since gas production is directly related to the amount of amps, it follows that the formula for the expected gas production (once the cell has been run in) = 1 lpm for every 10A, 13.8V = 1 lpm hydroxy gas for every 138Watt.

Design considerations

This is a straight forward series cell design that uses tubes instead of plates. Since we are performing normal electrolysis (no resonance or anything fancy) Wouter's own testing indicated that tubes cells and plates gave pretty much the same amount of gas as plate cells, if used in a series cell configuration.

The Tubes design is chosen for practicality, efficiency (i.e. maximum gas production at lowest power consumption) and reliability (i.e. not overheating too soon). As a bonus, the shape nicely fits into any engine bay and is also a rather leak free design. An important advantage of the "WaterfuelForAll" tubular design (when compared to other series cell designs) is the fact that the electrolyzer can easily be disassembled should you at any later stage want to do maintenance. It is not recommend a unit that is completely sealed and cannot be opened easily.

The performance tubular 6 series cell is good enough to be used as a booster for someone that only commutes between 1-4 hours per day but cannot be used for an indefinite period.

When comparing operating temperatures it is also important to note the starting temperature and current after only a few minutes, because when evaluating operating temperature one must use relatively equal electrolyte solutions and one cannot compare a unit which starts of at 16A with a unit with much lower electrolyte concentration starting of at 8A for instance. Obviously the unit starting at 16A will pick up temperature faster and one must compare apples with apples!

So, if you want to run the tubular 6/7 series cell at a lower electrolyte concentration, you could start of with say 8A (instead of 16A) and then you could find that your booster is still well below 60 degrees Celsius after 4 hours.

Remember that the overall efficiency and speed at which your own cell will warm up will be a function of how precise you have built it and how much current leakage there is. If your tubes are not aligned properly or if you have lots of current leakage, do not expect a high performing cell and also don't be surprised if your cell overheats quickly.

The following is a discussion about the need for small water leveling holes. This implies that one is concerned that when filling up all the cells, it is not done evenly. In this regard, look at the following.



You will notice that at the top there is a flat polyprop disc with holes in it. Wouter's experience thus far showed that when he filled up with water, he did not even have to move his hand across all cells because this flat disc channels the water rather evenly to all the different cells. But adding some water leveling holes should not do too much harm as long as they are not aligned as to minimize current leakage.

However, in this regard you will have to do your own testing to see what works best for you. You will have to measure gas out put as well as water temperature over time to find the best overall solution. The only electrical connection is to the inner most and outer most tubes. The outer tube is connected to negative and the centre tube is connected to positive. There are no connections between the tubes and they are isolated/seperated from each other with HDPE/polypropolene spacers.

The tubes have got polyprop spacers both at the bottom and at the top. At the bottom there is also a polyprop disc (with no holes in it as the top one) as to seal of the tubes from each other to prevent leakage of current and thereby delaying the rate at which the cell picks up heat. For ease of construction Wouter used a stainless steel clamp

around the outer tube to connect to the cathode. Alternatively, one could spot weld in a connection. The white discs and spacers inside is made of polypropolene which can withstand temperatures of up to 110 degrees Celsius.

To summarize, the unit is a 6 cell unit using 7 tubes (diameters 4" / 3.5" / 3" / 2.5" / 2" / 1.5" / 1") The outer tube is connected to negative and the centre tube is connected to positive. The centre 1" tube is connected to a 8mm (5/16") stainless steel threaded rod with a 1 inch s/steel washer so that the rod provide an easy and secure outside connection to positive.

The outer tube will be slightly longer than the inner tubes which are all the same length. The tricky part is to get the tubes to align properly and in Wouter's prototype he used polypropylene spacers cut to an accuracy of 0.1 mm. This could be expensive if done in small quantities and for someone that is merely experimenting they might try to use some clear plastic tubing and simply insert it in between the tubes (or bent some pieces around the tube edges).

It will not look very professional, but if you are the only person that is going to see the inside of your booster it should do the trick and will be the cheapest! (However, if you go this route you must make VERY sure that the tubes are rock solid and won't move because you do not want to end up with tubes touching each other creating a spark!!)

Note -In a car it is recommended not to run it at more than 20A and at 20A (13.8V) the tubular cell generates 2lpm which is more than enough. With regard to the measurements, it is very easy.

If you have purchased a booster from Wouter and want to get exact specifications you can physically measure all outside measurements and simply deduct 3-4cm from the length of the outer tube to get to the length of the inner tubes.

Wouter states say 3-4cm because this length will be determined by how thick the plastic spacers are and how much space they will be taking up. If the spacers are thin, then 3cm should be enough, but if the spacers are thick, then a 4cm longer outer tube would be appropriate) Inner rod is this length plus how far you want it to protrude at the bottom. For the Standard model Wouter is using 15cm long inner tubes and a 19cm long outer tube and for the Deluxe model He is using 20cm long inner tubes and the outer tube is 24cm in length.

If it is leaking a lot, then I would recommend that you open up the unit by simply unscrewing the 4 bolts at the top and then apply some expoxy glue around the perimiter of the white thread on the inside (bottom) of the black flat plastic square.

If your cell is leaking only very small bubbles rather slowly, then I would not worry too much, because you will probably lose about 10ml of gas in 1 minute which is nothing! If

you suspect gas leakage around the elbow, just remove the gas hose, clean the elbow nipple, smear some silicon (not too much) around the elbow nipple and refit gas hose with secure clamp! The original nylon elbow fitting specified is made of HDPE and may be a little too soft. Wouter has since replaced them so look for new Nylon ones which are harder and while the black plastic square is also Nylon will also glue better, thus less likely to leak.

With regard to the top spacer for the groove alternative refer. To ensure an extra good connection between the center rod and 1" inner tube, one can drill a 1" hole in the middle of the top spacer. Then place a stainless steel 1" dia. washer also on top of the 1" dia tube and fasten with a s/steel nut. To do this, the top spacer must be thick enough to accommodate the height of the nut. On top of the plastic spacer then comes another stainless steel washer with a diameter greater than 1" and finally a lock nut to keep everything together.


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Re: Most efficient tubelar cell from Wouter Oosthuizen waterfuelforall
« Reply #2 on: June 03, 2020, 09:46:33 am »
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Re: Most efficient tubelar cell from Wouter Oosthuizen waterfuelforall
« Reply #3 on: June 03, 2020, 09:51:12 am »
Additional water level indicator

Just a few notes on a water level indicator: If the water indicator is connected to the bottom of the cell, then that will lead to current leakage and reduced efficiency. This means drilling a hole in the outer stainless steel tube and fitting/welding a small pipe/tube connection on the side of the cell.

Solid works and CAD drawings courtesy of Alex

A special thanks and credit must go to Alex (Paradox user name on the energetic forum) for his precise and quality work on these drawings. These drawings are exceptional and he has done an extraordinary job in the detail. Wouter and Panacea would like to sincerely thank Alex for his work on these drawings you have him to thank for these!

CAD files -down load























Lye Concentrations

For electrolyte, Wouter used NaOH (Lye) and for a 6 series cell you should not need more than 1 tablespoon for every liter of water. Wouter recommends add enough NaOH to start with a current draw of 10A (but no more) when the booster is cold. As the booster heats up the current draw will also increase.

The recommended amount of electrolyte to be used together with the typical resulting current flow is as follows. With regard to the amount of lye used, it must be noted that one cannot simply give a rule that is generally applicable, since the amount of lye used is a function of:

the number of cells (e.g. 6 or 7)

the size of the electrode surface area

the required starting/ending temperature required after a certain amount of time has
elapsed

Below describes figures to use as a guide when operating a WaterfuelForAll 6 series tubular cell, where the inner tubes are +-20cm in length, with the smallest tube 1" and largest tube 4" in diameter

(holding +- 1 liter of water without overflowing the upper rim of the inner tubes), and we do not want the amp flow to exceed 16A within the first 2 hours:

Add 1/8 cup (+-6 teaspoons or 30ml) of lye to 1 liter of water (distilled recommended) Below is the typical temperatures and amp flow for the above concentration for the 6 series cell:

Amp flow Temperature Gas production



Start

5A

Cold




0.5 lpm

10 min

7.5A







0.75lpm

1/2 hour

10A







1.0 Ipm

1 hour

12A

40 deg

C

1.2 lpm

1 1/2 hour

15A

50 deg

C

1.5 lpm

2 hours

16A

58 deg

C

1.6 lpm

3 hours

17A

65 deg

C

1.7 lpm

4 hours

18A

73 deg

C

1.8 lpm

5 hours

18A

74 deg

C

1.8 lpm

6 hours

18A

75 deg

C

1.8 lpm

7 hours

18A

74 deg

C

1.8 lpm

8 hours

18A

73 deg

C

1.8 lpm

One can see that after 4 hours of continuous operation, the temperature stabilizes at +-74 degrees Celsius which is ideal! Note that the above temperatures were measured during bench-testing with an outside temperature of +-21 deg C. If the booster is installed in a car with sufficient air flow, this will have a cooling effect which could see that the booster stabilizes at a lower maximum temperature.

Once the booster has reached an operating temperature of between 60-75deg C, it consumes +-75ml water for every 1 hour of operation, so filling up with 1 liter, should last +- 13 hours of driving time. These figures are estimated to be ideal for the average car with engine capacity ranging between 1000-3000cc. 15A does not place too much of a burden on the alternator of the car, allowing maximum mileage gains.

Electrode spacing is another factor that influences the amount of electrolyte needed to allow a certain amount of amps. Note that in a series cell, spacing less than 3mm inhibits the bubble flow and resulting gas production at higher amps, because the electrolyte starts foaming and crawling up the tubes thereby reducing efficiency.

Also note that the amount of gas is NOT related to the amount of water left in the container (except when no water is left and no current is flowing!).

The amount of hydroxy gas produced is determined by the AMPS (e.g. 1 lpm@10A, 2lpm@20A), so you could have peak gas production right until the last moment before your cell runs completely dry, where peak gas production would be determined by the amps at that time. Whether you have 100ml of water left or 900ml of water left makes does not determine the amount of gas although the temperature of the water determines the resistance of the electrolyte and thus also influences the amps that are flowing.

So with less water in the unit, the temperature is likely to be higher resulting in more amps flowing than with more water! For example, let's say you have only 100ml of water left in your booster with a given amount of lye, and lets say the water temperature is 70 degrees Celsius. For these parameters you might have 20A current flow resulting in 2liters per minute gas production.

Should we now add 900ml of ice cold water to reduce the water temperature to 40 degrees Celsius, you might find that you amps suddenly drop to 15A and thus only 1.5 liters per minute gas production. So in this case adding the water actually reduced the amount of gas produced. This is an extreme example but I use it to illustrate to you that the amount of water left is not the issue, rather the concentration of lye in the water (making the water more conductive) and the temperature of the water itself.

Faraday calculation

To exceed 100% Faraday efficiency you must go for a 7 series cell if you are using 13.8V. Most important reason was how long the 7 series cell takes to warm up to a temperature high enough to get decent gas production. When driving in a car we do not have the luxury of having the cell sitting on a bench and can wait for hours to reach decent gas production. User wants to have good gas production already after the first 10 minutes of driving!!

Another drawback of the 7 series cell is that it need much more (+-6 times more) electrolyte to pass the same current and as we know by know, the electrolyte is indeed being slowly consumed by the reaction. So the 7 series cell is much more sensitive to this and will have to be topped up with electrolyte much more frequently.

However, a 7 series cell would be ideal for powering a generator 24 hours a day, sitting at home. It is important to note that using the Faraday figure when gas volume is measured at STP, but most experimenters measure the gas at room temperature.

According to Faraday, it should require 2.36 W/lph of hydroxy gas production, when gas volume is measured at STP. (This is the figure Bob is using) BUT, at room temperature this figure changes to 2.16W/lph. So at room temperature the tubular 6 series cell performance of 2.3W/lph converts to 93.9% Faraday efficiency.

7 Series Cell design

A 7-series tubular cell will need up to 6-7 TIMES MORE NaOH than a 6 series cell booster. This is not practical as the increased NaOH electrolyte concentrations are not user friendly.

For a 6 series cell, one will typically see that 6 teaspoons of lye achieves a current flow of 5A at start-up, 12A after 1 hour and 16A after 2 hours. Wouter performed the exact

same test on a 7 series tubular cell of similar size and after adding 7/8 of a cup of lye (that is 42 teaspoons!) the amp flow was only 4A at startup.

More frustrating is the slow warm up period of the 7 series cell and after an hour the amp flow was only 5A and even after 2 hours, the amp flow was still only 6A! We need a decent amount of amps to generate a decent amount of gas, and after 2 hours the 6 series cell was generating 1.6 lpm compared to the 0.72lpm of the 7 series cell. So you can understand why Wouter say the 7 series cell is impractical for a car, apart from the fact that a concentration of almost a cup of lye on 1 liter of water is certainly not very user friendly.

The WouterFuelForAll booster is anyway so easy to take apart, that if you feel very strong about using 7 tubes (or maybe just want to experiment yourself), you could easily open up the booster and add an 8th tube to form 7 cells. Depending on the model, you might have to drill an additional circular groove. Then simply buy a tube with diameter 1.25" and of the same length than the inner tubes, and insert this tube in between the 1" and 1.5" tube! No other changes needed. Note - The number of active cells depends on power supply voltage. For a battery and a brute force operation, an 8 tube 7 cell works well with 13.2-13.6 volt battery supply, but more electrolyte is required thus more heat.


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Re: Most efficient tubelar cell from Wouter Oosthuizen waterfuelforall
« Reply #4 on: June 03, 2020, 10:00:11 am »

Series connections for higher LPM

It is suggested to use a 6 or 7 cell version. If you build our tubular design using 8 tubes, 1", 1.5", 2", 2.5",3",3.5",4",5" then you have a nice LARGE 7 series cell booster which should produce 3lpm @ 30A.

Alternatively you can use 7 tubes 1.5", 2", 2.5",3",3.5",4",5" and then you have a LARGE 6 series cell which should produce at least 2.2lpm @ 30A and will use less NaOH than the 7 series cell. Two tubular boosters should give you a good kind of gas production and you only have to unscrew two caps and refill two when refilling with water.

The length of the tubes will be determined by the maximum amount of amps that you want to run your cell at. Obviously the inner tube will have the least area and thus you will be basing your calculations on the inner tube's area, e.g. if you plan to run your call at max 25 A and we only want max 0.15A/cm2 that imply we need a minimum electrode plate area of 167 cm2 for each tube. The area of the inner tube is calculated as pi*Diameter*height. So required Height = 167/(3.14x2.5) = 21.3 cm This will be the length of all the inner tubes and obviously the outer tube will be slightly longer. The fluid level can be any level as long as the water does not overflow from one cell to another to allow current leakage.

You decide the lye concentration yourself upfront. Start with smaller amounts and if after an hour of operation the booster is still not at the desired amps, then add a little bit

of NaOH. In Wouters own testing the 7 series cell needed 6-7 times more NaOH than the 6 series cell, to allow the same amount of current to flow.

So for example: If you add two tablespoons of NaOH to 1 liter of water on a 6 series cell, depending on the size of the tubes, the booster might eventually stabilize at 10A after warmup. However, you have to use 12 tablespoons of NaOH just to get the same amount of current flowing when using the 7 series cell of the same size, indeed a very caustic solution and definately not user friendly. Alternatively, to get the same gas production with a 7 cell unit, one would have to increase the electrode surface area a lot and therefore have to build a much larger unit. As we all know, space is a premium in an engine compartment not to mention the price of stainless steel.

Recommendations for New Cells

Here are some tips and recommendations for the new cells, based on some of our bench tests.

Before we get started, make VERY sure you do not have gas leaks!!!!! Hold the whole booster and gas hose connections under water (while operating) to make sure. You need to also make sure you measure the voltage at a constant 13.8V.

Starting off with a new cell, start with a 1 liter of distilled water containing 4-5 teaspoons of sodium or potassium hydroxide, make sure they are not heaped too much. Make sure the electrolyte does not overflow the edges of the inner tubes. The idea is to get a cold booster starting off at 10 amps and stabilizing at 20A. If you're new booster does not do this with the recommended concentration of electrolyte, pour it into a suitable container and save it, mix up less so the current can stabilize.

It is always better to start off with less then more electrolyte concentration, you can always add more easily out of your pre mixed 1 liter container of water. If you went over 20 amps initially, say 25 don't worry Let it run a few hours and then let it stand overnight filled with electrolyte. The next day do the same test and after about 3-4 hours you should already see some increase in gas production.

Understand that since it is a new cell, the plates won't be fully conditioned. Before they can perform to capacity after a couple of runs they need to be prepared or conditioned properly. if done right, then you should see an increase in gas production after a few runs which may continue the conditioning process. It has been reported that they build up some catalytic layer, but this is a topic for another document.

Anyway, Wouter built a few tubular boosters and ran them for a few hours initially, no more than 8 hours. These were boosters that he tested at up to 30A and after 8 hours they would still only give the baseline 2.2-2.3 lpm @ 30A ( which is same as 1.8-1.9lpm @ 25A). Wouter then put these boosters away in one of his store rooms. He left them filled

with a solution of electrolyte. One month later he retrieved these boosters and without changing anything, literally tested them as is, all of them then produced the desired 1lpm @ 10A!!!

So after he did some tests with this cell configuration he found that the conditioning / preparation of the stainless steel also have to do with TIME and not only number of hours it was operated.

So at the start of your new cell your production should be in line with a brand new cell: 13.8V @ 25A continuous, 1.9-2.5 lpm the production is expected to be at the bottom end of the range. It is recommended that the cell is run at least 30 hours before there is an expected increased in production. Whether it is some kind of aging / chemical change that gradually takes place within the stainless steel electrodes, regardless one should simply be patient as sometimes it is the TIME that does the trick. Still for 1.9LPM,, depending on your engine , most are still going to get a good boost right away.

Note please also refer to section 17 in the FAQ below for new cells.

Note that one should not be fixated on getting exactly 2lpm @20A in the standard model design. If you get anything above 1.8lpm @ 20A, one should be happy and just start using it!! Also, when testing on the test vehicle, I suggest that one does two different tests:

Amps only varies between 5-12A max

Amps only varies between 10-20A max

We might find that one of the setups produce much better savings and it is not necessary going to be with the most hydroxy gas.

Car installation

Wouter recommends connecting the hose coming from the water trap to the air intake before the air breather, so that the gases introduced into the intake are first filtered by the air filter.We are not interested in a vacuum because the manifold has greatest vacuum at the wrong time, and no vacuum at the worse time.Also, we want the hydroxy gas filtered of any mist, which may carry traces of electrolyte. As an additional benefit, the air filter serves as a first line of defense protecting against a back flash coming from the engine.



On the Relay Wiring, the trigger input says "Ignition On" Make sure it is tapped into a component that only cuts on with the "Ignition On and Not Accessory" like the Fuel Pump fuse.

Water Fuel for All FAQ

1. How can the WaterfuelForAll booster improve my mileage? Will I still get the same power I have come to expect from my vehicle?

Adding a hydrogen-oxygen mix (also called hydroxy) to the fuel system of an internal combustion engine, increases the combustion of the gasoline (or diesel). This can be compared to putting a super high grade of gasoline in your engine. You get better overall performance, increased horsepower and gas mileage. The booster uses electrical power from the engine that is ultimately created by the fossil fuel, but the gain in efficiency of the engine exceeds the energy loss from generating the hydroxy mix.

The increase in horsepower and gas mileage comes from better combustion of the gasoline. Usually, only about 15% of the available energy in gasoline is converted to mechanical energy in an internal combustion engine. The addition of hydroxy results in better combustion which means more of the available energy in the gasoline is converted to mechanical energy and that has nothing to do with creating energy or violating any laws of thermodynamics.

2. Is the WaterfuelForAll booster a "true series cell"?

The 6 series cell tubular design is a "true series cell", since the cells are completely seperated/isolated from each other so that water cannot flow from one cell to an adjacent cell. In this regard readers might be interested to know who really is the father of the- "true series cell". The credit must go to William Rhodes, see US Patent no. 3,310,483, (1967) who built the first series cell electrolyzer.

3. Which booster is the best?

There is no such thing as a booster that will always be the best under all circumstances. However, the two most important factors when comparing boosters are their efficiency, in other words, how much gas generated for a certain amount of power consumed, and also whether they overheat or not.

Some boosters, claim impressive amounts of liters per minute gas production, but they do not tell us at how many amps were used and at what water temperature the measurement was taken. Knowing how many amps is needed is important because it tells us both how efficient the cell is as well as whether the design is likely to have overheating problems.

The less efficient a cell is, the more there is current leakage and as a result the more generation of waste heat. (So for instance generating 3 lpm @ 35A is less energy efficient than generating 2 lpm @ 20A, and one should not just look at the lpm!). Knowing at what water temperature the reading was taken will tell us if the gas was a high quality gas or maybe contained a lot of water vapour.

As a rule of thumb, a series cell design is the most efficient design for straight forward brute force electrolysis. An open bath design will never be able to be as efficient as a series cell design such as the 6 series cell WouterfuelForAll design. (In a true series cell design, the individual cells are isolated from each other and water cannot move freely to adjacent cells, whereas with an open bath design, the cells are open and water can move freely in between the electrodes and from one cell to another.)

The biggest problem with an open bath design is that because of excessive current leakage, it usually overheats rapidly and typically gets to 90+ degrees Celsius within +-2 hours. If an open bath design booster is not constructed from material that can handle those temperatures, you have a problem (e.g. PVC plastic which is only good for 60 degrees C)

Excessive heat also means energy is lost unnecessary with resulting lower efficiency. So a simple but very effective way to have a honest comparison between two boosters, is to put them next to each other and let them run at the same amps. To make an accurate efficiency comparison there should be no external water cooling device or mechanism present (e.g. heatsinks, cooling fans, radiators, siphons etc.). The booster that has the highest water temperature after two hours will always be the least efficient while the booster with the lowest water temperature will always be the more efficient design! It is actually the energy that is wasted that heats up the water, and hotter water simply means more energy is wasted which could have been used to generate more hydroxy. In this regard one must note that if a design needs some kind of external water cooling device or mechanism, this might actually disguise the inherent inefficiency of the design.

If you measure the gas production of an open bath cell while it is running at >85 degrees Celsius, it might look as if you are getting impressive gas production, but at those temperatures the gas contains a lot of water vapour, thus it is a lower quality of gas. So, be very careful when comparing the "claimed" gas production from various boosters. Make sure that you know at what operating temperature the claimed amount of gas was measured and make sure the claim can be verified!

Another important measure of the quality of the booster, is to look at the stainless steel

being used.

Some boosters are constructed from cheaper stainless steel and not the more corrosive

resistant 316 as is the case with the WaterfuelforAll booster.

Also the WaterfuelfoAll booster only uses plastics (e.g. nylon, polyprop) which are

capable of handling higher temperatures as PVC.

So the biggest advantage of the 6 series cell WaterfuelforAll booster is its efficiency, which is up to 2 liters per minute at 20A (13.8V) for the Standard model, and up to 2.5liters per minute at 25A for the Delux model, measured with a water temperature not exceeding 75 degrees Celsius. Even more important is the fact that it can run 8+ hours continuously without overheating.


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Re: Most efficient tubelar cell from Wouter Oosthuizen waterfuelforall
« Reply #5 on: June 03, 2020, 10:02:57 am »
4. What models are available and what is their pricing?

We manufacture two models:

WaterfuelForall Standard max 25A, 20A continuous, 1.5-2.0 lpm @ 20A - USD 195 WaterfuelForall Deluxe max 30A, 25A continuous, 1.9-2.5 lpm @ 25A - USD 295 WaterfuelForall Super Deluxe max 35A, 25A continuous, 1.9-2.5 lpm @ 25A - USD 395

This price includes the electrolyzer with a 1 liter HDPE water trap/bubbler and the necessary hoses.

A "heavy duty" bubbler is available at an additional cost of USD30. All units are fully assembled and individually bench tested for a period of at least 2 hours. AWG 8 cables with soldered connectors, a 30A relay, amp meter and in-line fuse is available at an additional USD 50.

5. Which shipping options are available?

Two shipping options are available:

Americas Asia, Canada, China, Australia Europe Delivery Time
Air mail USD 100 80 70 +- 7-10 days

Surface mail USD 35 25 25 +- 35 days

6. How do you manage such competitive prices?

We had several e-mails from individuals telling us that they cannot beat our price if they want to build it them self, and the reason is simple: we buy our materials in bulk and have designed a manufacturing process that is very cost efficient. Our goal is to provide the public with a reliable booster but at an affordable price so that it make more sense for someone to rather buy a professionally built unit from us, instead of trying to build a unit them self, with all the related problems.

7. Which unit do you recommended for my car?

If your car's engine size is larger than 2500cc, we recommend the Deluxe model otherwise the Standard model should be fine.

8. How difficult is it to install?

Detailed installation instructions goes with every unit sold, but the procedure is pretty straight forward and should not take longer than 1.5 hour to install, if so much.

9. Where must the booster be placed?

Anywhere in the engine compartment but preferably in a place where it will have a constant airflow (just like the radiator) so that it can benefit from the cooling effect of airflow.

10. How is the hydroxy injected into the engine?

The hose coming from the water trap is connected to the air intake before the air breather, so that the gases introduced into the intake are first filtered by the air filter. We

are not interested in a vacuum because the manifold has greatest vacuum at the wrong time and no vacuum at the worse time. Also, we want the hydroxy gas filtered of any mist, which may carry traces of electrolyte. As an additional benefit, the air filter serves as a first line of defense protecting against a back flash coming from the engine.

11. Where do you buy your tubes?

We are situated in South Africa, and are buying our tubes locally. All tubes are grade 316 ISO certified.

12. Do I need an EFIE?

If the vehicle has fuel injection, it is likely that you will have to use an EFIE together with

your booster, before you will notice optimal mileage improvement.

Examples of EFIE circuits available on the internet is:

http://www.fuelsaver-mpg.com/

http://www.madcosm.com/

In cooperation with Panacea, a reputable alternative energy research organization in

Australia

we will within the next few weeks be conducting in depth tests in this regard, using the

WaterfuelForAll booster. Panacea will be testing various models of EFIE's as well to assist

us in finding the best solution.

13a. What is the maximum amount of amps that my engine can handle for optimum mileage?

Every engine has a sweet spot where the net energy gain because of the addition of hydroxy is the biggest. If your booster is pulling too much amps, your engine may need more petrol just to supplement the drag from the alternator (just like an air conditioner causes higher fuel consumption). To answer this question, the following procedure is suggested:

Remove the hydroxy gas outlet from the intake and start your engine without the booster. Listen to the engine or watch the rpm's. Next turn on the booster, but do NOT feed the hydroxy gas into the intake. If you notice a change in engine pitch, then that is a sign that you are pulling too much amps. Next, turn off the booster, put the gas hose back into the air intake and turn on the booster again.

Listen to the engine pitch. If the rpm went down, then your booster is not offsetting the amps you are pulling, in other words, it is pulling too much amps and no/little mileage improvement is to be expected.

13B. How much Hydroxy is needed for optimum mileage improvement?

I do not have the answer yet, but Panacea, a reputable alternative energy research organization in Australia will within the next few weeks be conducting in depth tests in this regard, using the WaterfuelForAll booster. Hopefully these tests with advanced computer equipment will be able to answer all our questions in this regard.

14. How do I refill with water and how much?

The booster has a removable cap for easy refill. Just add the water until it wants to overflow the edges of the inner tubes. If you by accident fill up a little bit too much, then its not such a big problem.

Yes, there will be much more current leakage initially, but this will only last until that first bit of excess water has been used up, which should be rather quickly. If the water/electrolyte overflows, it will simply be caught by the bubbler/water trap.

15. What electrolyte should I use?

We recommend lye (also known as caustic soda, chemical symbol NaOH).You can also use KOH but it is usually more expensive than lye and not so easily obtainable. Do NOT use baking soda since it might damage the electrodes (tubes) which may lead to reduced gas production.

16. What kind of water should I use?

Distilled is recommended because tap water may cause sludge to build up and short the electrodes.

Should you decide to use tap water, you do so at your own risk and in such case we advise that you should regularly open up and clean out the electrolyzer, at least once every 3 months. If your water contains too much impurity, it may contaminate the electrodes which may lead to reduced gas production.

17A. How do I control the current draw (amps)?

Amps are controlled by how strong the electrolyte solution is, and to stabilize at between 15-18A you need to add +-30ml (6-8 teaspoons) of lye to 1 liter of water initially.

If you are driving less than 2 hours at a time, then you do not have to be too much concerned about the amps, and then you may add up to 50% more lye, and the current draw should not go above 30A within 2 hours. Thus, for usage less than 2 hours, you can start with 9-12 teaspoons of lye to 1 liter of water. Note that once you have reached the minimum required lye concentration (+-6 teaspoons), the current draw increases very fast with every additional teaspoon of lye added. So rather start with too

little lye, than too much. You can always add another teaspoon of lye if you see that your booster does not get close to 25A within 2-3 hours, but if you have added too much lye initially, you may end up with the current draw increasing too quickly and after an hour you may be forced to switch off your booster.

17B. How do I prevent freezing in sub zero temperatures?

Electrolyte concentration needs to be high to prevent freezing. Alternatively you can put a heating/cooling coil around the unit (engine coolant driven)or wrap the booster with fiberglass foil backed insulation. NaOH (like KOH) at "moderate" (20%) concentration makes a reasonable anti-freeze. It will freeze at about -10 F. KOH at 28% will not freeze even in Norway. The bubblers can contain some antifreeze.

18. How do I / Should I condition my booster before using it?

Some successful commercial boosters do not recommend any specific conditioning procedure. On the other hand, Bob Boyce strictly prescribes the following procedure for electrode cleansing and conditioning:

Plate Cleansing -"During this stage, we are operating in submerged plate condition, where the liquid level is maintained just over the plates. Run this cell stack at full power for several hours at a time, which can be 4 amps or more. As the cell stack runs, the boiling action will loosen particulate from the pores and surfaces of the metal. Be sure to do this in a well vented area. Shut down and pour this solution into a container. Rinse the cells well with distilled water. Filter the dilute solution through paper towels or coffee filters to remove particulate. Pour the dilute solution back in and repeat this cleansing process. You may have to rinse and repeat many times until the cells stop putting out particulate matter into the solution. Optionally, you can use new solution each time you cleanse, but be forwarned, you can go through a lot of solution just in this cleansing stage. When cleansing is finished (typically 3 days of cleansing), do a final rinse with clean distilled water."(Not that Bob's system use a 101 plate cell, thus full power is only 4 amps. For the WaterfuelForAll booster, full power would imply 20-25A)

Plate Conditioning - "Using the same concentration of solution as in cleansing, now fill the cell stack with dilute solution. Monitor current draw. If current draw is fairly stable, continue with this conditioning phase straight for 2 to 3 days, adding distilled water to just replace what is consumed. If the solution turns color or skims over with crud, the cell stack needs more cleansing stages. After 2 to 3 days of run time, pour out the diluted solution and rinse well with distilled water."

My recommendation would be to try and stick as close as possible to the procedure prescribed by Bob, for best results. Best would be to connect your booster to a

regulated power supply during the break in period. (I'm using a PSU rated max 32A) But at the same time I have to confess that I have experienced little difference between different conditioning methods tested by myself. While we are not trying to achieve resonance (we are merely performing brute force electrolysis), and while we are using a good quality grade 316 stainless steel, I suspect that the exact method used for conditioning does not matter so much, as long as the plates are never touched by bare hands or any other chemicals than NaOH or KOH.I think the most important point is to stick to using distilled water and just know that your booster will not start out at maximum gas production, but gas production will gradually increase during the first +-30 hours of operation.

During assembly we only handle the tubes with rubber gloves, so you do not have to be worried about contamination for a start. For simple brute force electrolysis for purposes of boosting I will simplify Bob's procedure to: Connect your booster to a PSU and run at +-20 amps for +-24 hours before fitting to your vehicle. Interrupt the procedure every time when the cell gets to +- half full of water and replace with new water & electrolyte. If you do not have a PSU, just borrow your friends'! (I'm sure one of your friends will have one!)

« Last Edit: June 03, 2020, 11:21:26 am by Steve »

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Re: Most efficient tubelar cell from Wouter Oosthuizen waterfuelforall
« Reply #6 on: June 04, 2020, 09:08:48 am »
That's interesting how a multi tube cell has different current, based on the tube diameters.

I just finished a new plate cell using two ss electrical handy box covers.  The plates are slightly curved, so when they're facing each other I suppose the current will vary at different points.  I'm quickly making a second cell, for comparison, with the plates stacked, with uniform spacing.  With this arrangement the plates could be spaced much closer.

Not sure what the alloy number is.  And cleaning them with lighter fluid reveals there is some oil on their surfaces.

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Re: Most efficient tubelar cell from Wouter Oosthuizen waterfuelforall
« Reply #7 on: June 04, 2020, 09:19:32 am »
Hi Tek,

Watch this video...
I want to know your thoughts on this.