Author Topic: Voltage peaks of Meyers vic purposes  (Read 2313 times)

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Voltage peaks of Meyers vic purposes
« on: September 29, 2015, 16:04:19 pm »
What might happen if you hit the two electrodes with a high voltage spike?

Basically, a current MUST flow, otherwise no hv spike!

Same with charging a capacitor
The real question is how short that burst aka voltage peak and current flow needs to be and what to do after that burst.
I think Meyer states to extract the feeded electrons together with the freed electrons using the eec....



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Re: Voltage peaks of Meyers vic purposes
« Reply #1 on: September 29, 2015, 16:24:29 pm »
If you look at the timeframes, the question popsup is:
Which ion travels quicker...the negative ion which has more mass because of the electron, or does the positive ion travels quicker thru the waterbath?

Think about the pulses...Negatively charged ions move to the positive electrode during electrolysis. They lose electrons and are oxidised.

If they arrive quicker and they loose an electron before real heavy current flow, you can extract more current from the water then you put in....
You create electricity with a little bit if electricity...and you produce monotomic hydrogen as well in the proces...



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Re: Voltage peaks of Meyers vic purposes
« Reply #2 on: September 30, 2015, 03:39:48 am »
Electrolysis begins when electrical current (a flow of electrons) flows out of one pole of the battery into one electrode, the cathode. Positive hydrogen ions (H + ) in the electrolyte pick up electrons from that electrode and become neutral hydrogen molecules (H 2 ):

2 H + + 2 e − → H 2

(Hydrogen molecules are written as H 2 because they always occur as pairs of hydrogen atoms. The same is true for molecules of oxygen, O 2 .)

As the electrolysis of water occurs, one can see tiny bubbles escaping from the electrolyte at the cathode. These are bubbles of hydrogen gas.

Bubbles can also be seen escaping from the second electrode, the anode. The anode is connected to the second pole of the battery, the pole through which electrons enter the battery. At this electrode, electrons are being taken out of the electrolyte and fed back into the battery. The electrons come from negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH − ), which have an excess of electrons. The anode reaction is slightly more complicated than the cathode reaction, as shown by this chemical equation:

4 OH − − 4 e − → O 2 + 2 H 2 O

Essentially this equation says that electrons are taken away from hydroxide ions and oxygen gas is produced in the reaction. The oxygen gas bubbles off at the anode, while the extra water formed remains behind in the electrolyte.

The overall reaction that takes place in the electrolysis of water is now obvious. Electrons from the battery are given to hydrogen ions in the electrolyte, changing them into hydrogen gas. Electrons are taken from hydroxide ions in the electrolyte and transferred to the battery. Over time, water molecules are broken down to form hydrogen and oxygen molecules:

2 H 2 O → 2 H 2 + O 2



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Re: Voltage peaks of Meyers vic purposes
« Reply #3 on: September 30, 2015, 03:49:13 am »
So, what is meyer doing?
Electrolysis?
Or?
The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical conduction through a gas by avalanche multiplication caused by the ionization of molecules by ion impact. When the number of free charges drops or the electric field weakens, the phenomenon ceases.

The Townsend discharge is named after John Sealy Townsend, who discovered the fundamental ionization mechanism by his work between 1897 and 1901. It is also known as a Townsend avalanche.

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Re: Voltage peaks of Meyers vic purposes
« Reply #4 on: September 30, 2015, 03:53:04 am »
Avalanche effect between two electrodes. The original ionisation event liberates one electron, and each subsequent collision liberates a further electron, so two electrons emerge from each collision: the ionising electron and the liberated electron.
The avalanche is a cascade reaction involving electrons in a region with a sufficiently high electric field in a gaseous medium that can be ionized, such as air. Following an original ionisation event, due to such as ionising radiation, the positive ion drifts towards the cathode, while the free electron drifts towards the anode of the device. If the electric field is strong enough, the free electron gains sufficient energy to liberate a further electron when it next collides with another molecule. The two free electrons then travel towards the anode and gain sufficient energy from the electric field to cause impact ionisation when the next collisions occur; and so on. This process is effectively a chain reaction of electron generation; it depends on the free electrons gaining sufficient energy between collisions to sustain the avalanche.[1] The total number of electrons reaching the anode is equal to the number of collisions, plus the single initiating free electron. The limit to the multiplication in an electron avalanche is known as the Raether limit.

The Townsend avalanche can have a large range of current densities. In common gas-filled tubes, such as those used as gaseous ionization detectors, magnitudes of currents flowing during this process can range from about 10−18 amperes to about 10−5 amperes.[citation needed]

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Re: Voltage peaks of Meyers vic purposes
« Reply #5 on: September 30, 2015, 03:57:27 am »
The basic setup of Townsend's early experiments investigating ionization discharges in gases consisted of planar parallel plates forming two sides of a chamber filled with a gas. A direct current high voltage source was connected between the plates, the lower voltage plate being the cathode while the other was the anode. Forcing the cathode to emit electrons using the photoelectric effect, by irradiating it for example with an X-ray source, Townsend found that the current I flowing through the chamber depends on the electric field between the plates in such a way that gas ions seemed to multiply as they moved between them. He observed currents varying exponentially over ten or more orders of magnitude with a constant applied voltage when the distance between the plates was varied. He also discovered the importance of the pressure of the gaseous medium, and was able to generate ions in gases at low pressure with a much lower voltage than that required to generate a spark. This overturned conventional thinking about the amount of current that an irradiated gas could conduct.[2]

The experimental data obtained from his experiments are described by the following formula

\frac{I}{I_0}=e^{\alpha_n d}, \,
where

I is the current flowing in the device,
I_0 is the photoelectric current generated at the cathode surface,
e is Euler's number
\alpha_n is the first Townsend ionization coefficient, expressing the number of ion pairs generated per unit length (e.g. meter) by a negative ion (anion) moving from cathode to anode,
d is the distance between the plates of the device.
The almost constant voltage between the plates is equal to the breakdown voltage needed to create a self-sustaining avalanche: it decreases when the current reaches the glow discharge regime. Subsequent experiments revealed that the current I rises faster than predicted by the above formula as the distance d increases: two different effects were considered in order to explain the physics of the phenomenon and to be able to do a precise quantitative calculation.

Gas ionization caused by motion of positive ions   Edit
Townsend put forward the hypothesis that positive ions also produce ion pairs, introducing a coefficient \alpha_p expressing the number of ion pairs generated per unit length by a positive ion (cation) moving from anode to cathode. The following formula was found

\frac{I}{I_0}=\frac{(\alpha_n-\alpha_p)e^{(\alpha_n-\alpha_p)d}}{\alpha_n-\alpha_p e^{(\alpha_n-\alpha_p)d}}
\qquad\Longrightarrow\qquad \frac{I}{I_0}\cong\frac{e^{\alpha_n d}}{1 - ({\alpha_p/\alpha_n}) e^{\alpha_n d}}
since \alpha_p \ll \alpha_n, in very good agreement with experiments.

The first Townsend coefficient ( α ), also known as first Townsend avalanche coefficient is a term used where secondary ionization occurs because the primary ionization electrons gain sufficient energy from the accelerating electric field, or from the original ionizing particle. The coefficient gives the number of secondary electrons produced by primary electron per unit path length.

Cathode emission caused by impact of ions   Edit
Townsend, Holst and Oosterhuis also put forward an alternative hypothesis, considering the augmented emission of electrons by the cathode caused by impact of positive ions. This introduced Townsend's second ionization coefficient \epsilon_i; the average number of electrons released from a surface by an incident positive ion, according to the following formula:

\frac{I}{I_0}=\frac{e^{\alpha_n d}}{1 - {\epsilon_i}\left(e^{\alpha_n d}-1\right)}.
These two formulas may be thought as describing limiting cases of the effective behavior of the process: either can be used to describe the same experimental results. Other formulas describing various intermediate behaviors are found in the literature, particularly in reference 1 and citations therein.

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Re: Voltage peaks of Meyers vic purposes
« Reply #6 on: September 30, 2015, 09:12:36 am »

water is still self ionizing ,  2H2O   >  OH- and H3O+ ions

the desired gas out put is either monatomic , diatomic , +ionized or - ionized  or some claim the water molecule falls apart!

theres got to be some prior exchange for each or those options .

eg:George Wiseman found that the most efficient plate spacing was 3/8" between +/- and neutral plates .  He has increased ratio of monatomic to diatomic gas at that spacing

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Re: Voltage peaks of Meyers vic purposes
« Reply #7 on: September 30, 2015, 10:46:52 am »
Or maybe the covalent bound simply switches off and no current ideally flow..