Ionizationx: a clean environment is a human right!

Herman Anderson => Herman Anderson => Topic started by: KWS on January 22, 2008, 21:58:04 pm

Title: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on January 22, 2008, 21:58:04 pm
Herman was a great guy !!

http://web.archive.org/web/20051030125030/www.hermansinsight.com/?BISKIT=4194768453&CONTEXT=cat&cat=108
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on January 05, 2013, 12:43:12 pm
   
rexresearch.com

Herman ANDERSON

Water Fuel System



 
http://waterpoweredcar.com/herman.html


Herman P. ANDERSON
(1918-2004)
 

Herman P. Anderson Technologies, LLC
PO Box 2014
Brentwood, TN 37024-2014
 
 


Herman and his water-powered Chevy Cavalier.

by James Allen

He could drive it, but he was not allowed to sell any, or manufacture his discovery in the State of Tennessee. Why not?

Herman's special patented sparkplugs, similar to Stan Meyer's plugs.

Herman has consulted with Nasa and the US Airforce on some of our country's most important Top Secret Projects including the first US satellite in space, the SR-71 Blackbird, the Stealth Fighter/Bomber and Starwars. Herman worked closely with Dr. Wernher von Braun testing hydrogen powered rocket engines, and he also worked with engineers at the now famous Skunk Works, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL, and Cal Tech. While in the Air Force during WWII, Herman served as a fighter pilot, a flight instructor and bombardier trainer. He was certified in and flew 23 different airplanes during this period.

Herman believed in a Hydrogen Future and FREE fuel!

Herman's 1971 Ford LTD converted to run on hydrogen or gasoline, on display in the Water Fuel Museum in Lexington, KY. In a video interview with the inventor, he explains that ambient air is mixed with hydrogen (not oxygen) and a micron-sized fog of water mist (to mimic gasoline's burn), introduced in the same way propane gas is on a propane conversion. In fact, the LP regulator and LP aircleaner assembly are the same as on a propane vehicle. The butterfly in the carb, as in an LP system, now serves as the intake air control. The rest of the function of the gasoline carb is not used. He claimed greater power than gasoline, and 38 miles per gallon of water. As far as quantity of hydrogen produced, he produced enough gas from his electrolytic chamber to need a cut-off switch connected to a pressure gauge to stop gas production when it was no longer needed while driving. In other words, instead of producing more or less gas on demand, as some systems do, it appears his system always produced the same amount, but was turned on and off as needed. He emphasized that deuterium (heavy water) was essential to his approach, doubling the density of the hydrogen, making it twice as powerful. He also used high voltage, 70,000 volts to be exact, from two custom-made coils, to effect rapid separation of the component gases, a process which he calls 'radiolysis.' The 70,000 volts constitute what he calls a 'soft' x-ray, not radioactive but in need of shielding, in-between a microwave oven and a 'hard' x-ray. He was authorized by the state of Tennessee to drive his car as they recognized that he knew what he was doing with such technology. I view his prototype LTD as good proof of a watercar for those who doubt that the technology is even possible, but not necessarily the best approach for you and me to pursue. He accomplished his invention along the lines of his expertise, the field of ionics; others have approached it differently with less controversial technology and have been equally successful.

My thoughts about Herman

Herman's 1978 Fort LTD came to be known as The Green Machine. Using a modified propane carburetor, Herman converted the LTD to run on hydrogen in 1980. Due to the low mass energy density of hydrogen, Herman was only able to get a little more than half power from the engine with this traditional induction system.

Because Herman only used a single cell, I believe you need to do the 3 cells hooked up in series like Archie Blue, Dingel's and Peter's design. Use - 3 - 4"dia. SS tubes , 8" long (cells) welded together. Put your series of SS plates inside each cell. gas lines coming out the top through a check value to the bottom of the next cell. Use rubber caps ends with hose clamps so if it ever blows it just blows the caps off and the water is drained and your mild explosion is over with.

You need more molecules of hydrogen clustered together as they pass thru 3 cells then into the IMPCO propane fuel injection carburetor. In gasoline SAE words a higher octane of hydrogen (ortho hydrogen) before it enters the fuel injection chamber. first H2 and O, then H4 and O2 then H8 and O4?? Who is the mathematician here? I'm not him. Peter can tell you.

There is para-hydrogen and ortho-hydrogen molecules. Ortho-hydrogen molecules will cluster and stick together, as they pass through 3 cells or more they cluster together more and more, their proton travels in the same direction, when finally sent to the combustion chamber they have 2-1/2 times the explosive power than gasoline!

Para-hydrogen are hydrogen molecules that will run together but have repelling protons to each other, therefore the clustering does not happen, they are less combustive than ortho-hydrogen. If you produce ortho hydrogen, then this also creates deuterium in which is what you want. deuterium build up on the cylinder walls, values helps oxidation from happening.

Now Stan used one tall wide cell with 3 tubes inside one large tube. 12" diva. and about 24" tall. Go look at his files.

To increase the power of the hydrogen, he irradiated it making deuterium. The extra proton was more than enough to allow the engine to achieve full power. It is good to get Deuterium built up in your piston walls, from the hydrogen so the water exhaust will not rust out the motor. They say AMSCO synthetic oil helps deal with the water in the oil better, helps it vaporize the water molecules.

Unfortunately, state officials decided the radioactive source under the hood would not be safe for widespread use. They did however allow Herman to continue driving the car and he put nearly 30, 000 miles on the car running on hydrogen. Realizing the technology could be improved, Herman went back to the drawing board.

It is kinda of ironic in that is exactly what a Ballard fuel cell is also doing, when in use in the new Hybrid Cars. The Ballard Fuel Cell is radioactively produce hydrogen to burn mixed with the air and the gasoline. The new hybrid cars are just as safe, except they use 1/2 gas and 1/2 electric. The Hybrids also contain radioactive batteries. The only difference was Herman's Wonderful car ran for FREE and with the new hybrid cars, you still have to PURCHASE the GASOLINE.

Yes the Mean Green Dancing Herman Machine was in the heart of every reader passing by with a BRAIN. Addicted to oil you drive to work, paying the largest corp. the largest profit in American history ever! Last quarter of 2004's profit from Exxon/Mobil exceeded the record for the largest quarter profit of 8 billion dollars. We are all guilty, unless you walk to work ride a bike, or enjoy an electric train.

The Green Machine also employed onboard electrolysis, meaning that to fill the gas tank, Herman would pour in distilled water.

and a little se cert Electrolyte KOH (1-5% solution to water, is all)

Yes there is a car that "runs on water." The car is now parked in the research facilities at MTSU.

Just like the TESLA statue at Niagara Falls, NY, it is way off to the side. And Edison's bust is real big in the middle with lights shinning on him. and he didn't even invent AC electricity, he was angry with Tesla's invention of AC, because it made his DC look non efficient. Today in all our households, we use AC electricity. It could have also been FREE wireless electricity. J.P. Morgan quit funding Tesla's FREE electricity Tower, because he could not find where to put the meter.

Next 10,000 people with water powered cars can join the STAN MEYERS 10.000 DUNE BUGGY PLANET MARATHON CLUB.

All truth passes through three stages: First, it is ridiculed; Second, it is violently opposed; and
Third, it is accepted as self-evident. -- Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

Fuel System for Internal Combustion System and Adapter for Use in Same

USP # 5,852,993

1998-12-29

Applicant: HERMAN P ANDERSON TECHNOLOGIES (US)
Classification: - international: F02B43/00; F02M21/02; F02B43/00; F02M21/02; (IPC1-7): F02M57/06; - European: F02B43/00; F02M21/02A
Also published as: US6119651 (A1)

Abstract -- The internal combustion engine fuel system described includes a structure for mixing the alternative fuel, preferably hydrogen, with oxygen in ambient air to stratify the fuel. The system includes an adapter, and the adapter includes a housing mounted between spark plug and cylinder of the internal combustion engine. A plug is placed within the housing. The plug has ridges or grooves on its outer surface that act as mixing structures. Thus, when hydrogen is introduced into the adapter housing it is mixed with ambient oxygen within the chamber as it flows over the plug. The mixing structures in the housing create a vortexing action as the hydrogen flows over the plug and towards the cylinder of the engine. An electrode protrudes from the plug towards the cylinder. The electrode is preferably platinum and generates the necessary spark to create combustion of the hydrogen/air mixture adjacent to the cylinder to thereby power the cylinder in the engine. A platinum electrode is preferably used because it enhances a catalytic conversion of combustion by-products to more environmentally compatible products.

Inventors:  Anderson; Herman P. (Brentwood, TN)
Assignee:  Herman P. Anderson Technologies, LLC (Brentwood, TN)

Current U.S. Class:  123/297 ; 123/527; 123/DIG.12
Current International Class:  F02B 43/00 (20060101); F02M 21/02 (20060101); F02M 057/06 ()
U.S. Patent Documents

 3926169  December 1975  Leshner et al.
 3980061  September 1976  Mcalister
 4319552  March 1982  Sauer et al.
 4343272  August 1982  Buck
 4383198  May 1983  Hosking
 4448160  May 1984  Vosper
 4546740  October 1985  Clements et al.
 5531199  July 1996  Bryant et al.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to a fuel system for internal combustion engines that enables the invention to utilize alternative fuels; and, more particularly to an improved fuel system for an internal combustion engine and an adapter for use in same.

The problems of air pollution caused by automobiles, lawn mowers and other vehicles that have internal combustion engines powered by gasoline is well documented. This problem is particularly described in an article in the San Diego Union Tribune, Wednesday, Sep. 25, 1996 and in Popular Science, August, 1996. Indeed, under the Clean Air Act, in the next few years cars that do not run on standard fossil fuels like gasoline will be required in several states. Currently, there are no vehicles available to meet this need.

Thus, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that there has been a push to seek other fuels for use in internal combustion engines. These fuels include methane, propane and gasohol.

Hydrogen has also been characterized as a promising fuel source. See Department of Energy publication entitled "Hydrogen Fuel", printed in 1978, U.S. Government Printing Office, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Public Affairs, Washington, D.C. 20585. Particularly, the graph presented in FIG. 6, which is copied from this publication, shows the potential for hydrogen in BTUs/Lb. However, the mass energy density for hydrogen is low; and thus, hydrogen needs to be compressed before its energy potential can be realized. No prior art fuel system has been able to capture the energy of hydrogen.

Several fuel systems for use with hydrogen have been proposed. Examples are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,167,919; 4,253,428; 4,016,836; 4,178,882; 5,222,993; 5,085,176; and 5,085,176. The problem with these prior art fuel systems is they cannot can take advantage of the alternative fuels to generate sufficient power from the fuels to drive an internal combustion engine for use in a lawn mower, automobile or other vehicle. As noted above, this is a particular problem when hydrogen is used as a fuel. Additionally, the prior art systems do not address the problem of back fire, i.e. undesired explosion of the fuel in the cylinder during the exhaust stroke of the internal combustion engine.

What is needed, then, is a fuel system for an internal combustion engine that provides a way to generate sufficient power from the alternative fuels and that reduces backfire problems. Such a system is lacking in the prior art.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for use with alternative fuels.

It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for use particularly with hydrogen, and particularly to enhance the mass energy density of hydrogen.

It is still a further object of this invention to provide an adapter for use in a fuel system for an internal combustion engine that enhances the power obtained from the alternative fuels.

It is still a further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for an internal combustion engine that does not present the environmental hazards of a standard gasoline engine by providing reduced or zero emission of environmentally harmful gases.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for an internal combustion engine that can use an alternative fuel and can use gasoline to facilitate the transition from gasoline to alternative fuels.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for an internal combustion engine that reduces backfire problems.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for an internal combustion engine that reduces backfire problems by cooling the electrode in the spark plug with the hydrogen gas fuel.

It is still a further object of this invention to provide an adapter for use in a fuel system for an internal combustion engine that enhances the power obtained from the alternative fuels.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide a direct injection fuel system wherein fuel is injected directly into the cylinder.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide a way to convert the standard induction fuel system of a lawnmower to a direct injection fuel system wherein fuel is injected directly into the cylinder.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide a way to convert the indirect injection fuel system of an automobile to a direct injection fuel system wherein fuel is injected directly into the cylinder.

The internal combustion engine fuel system of this invention includes a structure for mixing the alternative fuel, preferably hydrogen, with oxygen in ambient air to stratify the fuel. The term "alternative fuels" is known in the art and is meant to refer to fuels other than conventional gasoline.

The invention comprises an adapter, the adapter including a housing mounted between spark plug and cylinder of the internal combustion engine. A plug is placed within the housing. The plug has ridges or grooves on its outer surface that act as mixing structures. Thus, when hydrogen is introduced into the adapter housing it is mixed with ambient oxygen within the chamber as it flows over the plug. The mixing structures on the plug create a vortexing action as the hydrogen flows over the plug and towards the cylinder of the engine.

An electrode protrudes from the plug towards the cylinder. The electrode is preferably platinum and generates the necessary spark to create combustion of the hydrogen/air mixture adjacent to the cylinder to thereby power the cylinder in the engine. A platinum electrode is preferably used because it enhances a catalytic conversion of combustion by-products to more environmentally compatible products.

Thus, the combination of the compression action generated by the conventional piston and push rod within the cylinder of the engine in conjunction with the hydrogen/air mixing structure that vortexes the hydrogen/air create compressed hydrogen that is mixed with a combustion facilitator, i.e. oxygen in the ambient air to enable the system of this invention to capture the abundant energy found in hydrogen fuel.

The enhanced mixing capabilities of this invention is also adaptable for use with other alternative fuels such as natural gas, alcohol, propane and the like.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a plan view of the fuel system of this invention with a lawn mower shown in phantom.



FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the adapter of the fuel system of this invention.



FIG. 3 is an exploded perspective view of the adapter of the fuel system of this invention.



FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the adapter of the fuel system of this invention.



FIGS. 5A-5D are a schematic of the 4 cycle combustion in an internal combustion engine including the adapter of this invention.



FIG. 6 is a graph which shows the energy potential for hydrogen in BTUs/Lb.



DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Referring now to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout, the fuel system is referred to generally at 10. The fuel system of this invention is contemplated for use with an internal combustion power system, such as an internal combustion engine or such as a home heating system. Fuel system 10 is portrayed in this case as connected to a standard lawn mower. The lawn mower is shown in phantom at 12 in FIG. 1. The lawn mower is a conventional lawn mower as can be purchased from a company such as Murray of Ohio. The internal combustion engine in the lawn mower is a standard 4-cycle engine with two cylinders and develops 18 horsepower. A suitable example can be purchased from Briggs & Stratton, Milwaukee, Wis., 53201.

Referring particularly to FIG. 1, system 10 includes fuel tank 14 that is mounted to lawn mower 12 via mounting assembly 15. In the preferred embodiment, fuel tank 14 includes hydrogen gas. Accordingly, for the purposes of the foregoing detailed description, hydrogen gas will be described.

A line 22 begins at fuel tank 14 and proceeds to back-flow valve 16. Back-flow valve 16 is a standard valve and is available from AirCo Gases Company, 575 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974, part no. WCS CV-4M. PSI tank gauge 19 is inserted in line 22 between back-flow valve 16 and flow pressure gauge 18. PSI tank gauge 19 is available from AirCo Gases Company also, part no. WCS CV-5M, and serves as an indicator of fuel remaining in the tank 14. Flow pressure gauge 18 is used to monitor the flow of the hydrogen in pressure units. The flow is started using valve 16. The optimal flow pressure is 25 pounds of flow pressure from the tank 14 to the cylinder of the engine.

The flow of hydrogen is regulated via valve 20 that is part of gauge 18. Thus, when valve 20 is opened, hydrogen proceeds through line section 22 to hydrogen flow solenoid 26A. The user can access the hydrogen fuel by flipping hydrogen flow switch 24A into the "on" mode so that hydrogen gas in line 22 can proceed through hydrogen flow solenoid 26A and into line section 28.

Throttle 30 regulates the flow of hydrogen from line section 28 into line section 29 and ultimately, to engine 13. Throttle 30 is connected to throttle pedal 50 via includes throttle cable 48. Throttle pedal 50 also operates the butterfly valves in the carburetor in engine 13 in a conventional manner.

As an option, the throttle can be controlled electronically by a digital fuel controller product. Such a product is commercially available from Autotronic Controls Corp., 1490 Henry Brennan Drive, El Paso, Tex. 79936.

Line portion 29 proceeds through splitter 32 and is split into upper line 34 and lower line 36. Lines 34 and 36 proceed to adapters 38. Additional back-flow prevention valves 39 and 41 are mounted between lines 34 and 36 and adapters 38. Braided Teflon.RTM. is the preferred material for the fuel lines of the system.

Battery 42 is connected via battery cable 43 to magneto 44. Magneto 44 then controls the current through spark plug lines 46 to adapters 38 in a conventional manner. Thus, the regulation of the spark that ignites the fuel in the cylinder of engine 13 is conventional. Additionally, the intake of air into the engine 13 is accomplished through the standard carburetor system of engine 13. In a car, the sparking of the spark plugs can be controlled by the standard distributor/battery ignition system.

A second solenoid 26B controls the flow of gasoline from tank 23 through gasoline line 52. Solenoid 26B is controlled by switch 24B. Throttle 30 is connected to gasoline line 52 and can also be used to control the flow of gasoline to engine 13. Thus, this invention can be used with both an alternative fuel and gasoline.

Referring now to FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, the adapter 38 of this invention is shown in more detail. Adapter 38 includes housing 60. A threaded port 62 is formed into housing 60 through port block 64. Hydrogen lines are threadably connected to the adapter 38 via port 62. Port 62 is also referred to as an entrance port.

Adapter 38 also includes spark plug 66 which is effectively a standard spark plug except for the modification to the electrode as described below. Spark plug 66 includes a threaded end 68 which is threadably received in the threaded upper end 70 of housing 60. Spark plug wires 46 (as seen in FIG. 1) are connected to connector end 72 of spark plug base 66.

Electrode 76 protrudes from spark plug 66 and is of a length sufficient so that the threaded tip 77 (best seen in FIGS. 3 and 4) of the electrode 76 is proximate to the cylinder of the internal combustion engine when the adapter 38 is mounted. In one embodiment the electrode 76 is co-terminus with an exit port 88 of the adapter 38. This is most clearly shown in FIG. 4. Electrode 76 is preferably platinum to enhance catalysis of combustion by-products, as will be more fully discussed below.

Adapter 38 also includes plug 79. Plug 79 includes an axial internal void space 80. Thus, plug 79 fits over electrode 76 via internal void space 80. Plug 79 preferably comprises a ceramic material that acts as a good insulator. A suitable source for ceramic plug 79 is AM/PRO Machinery, Inc. 134 Church Street, Plain City, Ohio 43064-1321.

An important aspect of this invention is found on the external surface of plug 79. An annular groove 82 is formed on the surface of plug 79 near its distal end 81 so as to be proximal to the port 62 where hydrogen enters housing 60. Two stratifying grooves 84 proceed along the surface of plug 79 until they reach its distal end 83. It is these mixing structures, i.e. annual groove 82 and stratifying grooves 84, that facilitate the improved power generation from alternative fuels as provided by this invention. It will be apparent to those skilled in the analogous arts that the mixing structure may be formed on an inner surface 60i of the adapter housing 60. Alternatively, a combination of vortex producing structures may be attached to, and preferably integral with, both the plug 79 and the adapter housing inner surface 60i. Also, any conventional vortex producing means would be sufficient, i.e. grooves, per se, are not required. An entrance area 62a proximate the entrance port 62 is typically defined between the housing inner surface 60i and the external surface of plug 79. The external surface of plug 79 typically includes the grooves 84. So, the entrance area 62a is the volume of space within the housing, proximate the entrance port 62, which the gas will be able to occupy. This is most clearly shown in FIG. 4.

On threaded tip 77 of electrode 76, there are mounted a spacer nut 78 and a spark gap nut 85. As best seen in FIG. 2, the spark gap nut 85 includes a protrusion 85a that provides the spark gap between electrode 76 and periphery 89 of the exit port 88 of housing 60. The exit port 88 includes an exit area 88a. This is shown most clearly in FIGS. 2 and 4. The exit area 88a is no larger than the entrance area 62a. If the exit area 88a is smaller than the entrance area 62a, the pressure on the gas will increase. This increases the rate at which the gas is expelled from the plug 79, typically out through grooves 84. The electrode 76 is substantially co-terminus with the plug distal end 83 (seen most clearly in FIG. 2). Thus, the electrode 76 is substantially co-terminus with the exit port 88 or exit area 88a. Note that tip of the electrode 77 is preferably proximate with the exit area 88a because this is the location of greatest mixing. This is most clearly seen in FIG. 4. Preferably, the spark gap nut 85 is brass and the preferred spark gap distance is 25/1000 of an inch.

As best seen in FIG. 4, where arrows represent gas flow, hydrogen gas flows into chamber 60 via port 62. The hydrogen gas cools electrode 76, which facilitates combustion. Stratifying grooves 84, preferably there are two, act to mix the hydrogen that is flowing into housing 60 with ambient air therein. Though, more or less vortex creating grooves (a.k.a. stratifying grooves) may be desired. Typically, this will depend on the relative dimensions of the grooves and diameter of the plug as well as the pressure and velocity of the mixture in the housing. The mixing occurs within void space 86 of housing 60 and creates a vortexing or tornado action. Plug 79 tapers as it proceeds from its distal end 81 to its proximal end 83. Thus, proximal end 83 is smaller in diameter than distal end 81. This provides additional space within void space 86 for the mixing of the hydrogen and air. The stratified hydrogen/air are twisting in a vortex fashion when leaving housing 60 via exit port 88. The vortexing action produced by grooves 84 on the plug 79 creates a "tornado" 110 of hydrogen/air with a hollow center that generates a vacuum. Similar effect, or vortex flow path, would result were the grooves to be placed on the housing. The vacuum propels the hydrogen/air mixture into the cylinder of the engine for combustion. Such mixing cannot be accomplished in a conventional induction system.

Referring now to FIG. 5, a schematic of the system of this invention is portrayed, with arrows representing gas flow. Hydrogen flows in through port 62 through adapter 38 and into cylinder 92. Air enters cylinder 92 through air intake 90 and air intake valve 91. The stratified hydrogen/air mixture is compressed in the compression stroke of the engine via piston 94 and push rod 96, which are standard structures in an internal combustion engine. In the power stroke shown in FIG. 5-C, a spark is generated in the compressed stratified hydrogen/air mixture ignites and drives piston 94 and push rod 96 to power the engine.

The mass energy density of hydrogen is enhanced through the increased pressure on the hydrogen exerted by piston 94 on the hydrogen/air mixture within the cylinder 92 in the uptake stroke in an internal combustion engine. The pressurized and well-mixed hydrogen/air mixture is rapidly ignited through the spark because hydrogen has a fast flame front. This reduces problems with timing. Thus, the energy store found in hydrogen is captured through this system via the compression of the hydrogen gas within cylinder 92 and via the thorough mixing of hydrogen and air provided by adapter 38.

In addition, in the exhaust phase in a four cycle engine a second spark is generated from the plug to ensure complete combustion of by-products. This is enhanced by using an electrode made of platinum. Exhaust leaves cylinder 92 through exhaust port 98. Exhaust port 98 is closed during other phases by exhaust outlet valve 100.

In the exhaust stroke, because air valve 91 is closed, the substantial component of the gases in cylinder 92 is hydrogen. This is also accomplished due to the fact that in the system of this invention, the hydrogen is continuously flowing. When this spark interacts with what is predominately hydrogen, a plasma is formed. This plasma blocks back-flow of air from exhaust port 98. Prevention of back-flow of air prevents the hydrogen fuel system from backfiring, which is another common problem of hydrogen fuel systems. In effect, then, the plasma formed by the hydrogen acts as a virtual valve in that the plasma blocks the back-flow of air.

When the plasma of the hydrogen is generated as described above, UV radiation is generated which also facilitates consumption of combustion by-products. This increases the environmental friendliness of the system.

In addition to hydrogen the following fuels can be used in this system: natural gas; alcohol; gasohol; propane and buthane. A mixture of hydrogen and natural gas can also be used. As noted above, gasoline can be used in this system when solenoid 26 is used to stop the flow of hydrogen.

Further, it is contemplated that an adapter that is described herein for use with an internal combustion engine can also be used with a home heating system such as a home heating system that may currently use natural gas. The vortexing action created by the plug would enable appropriate power to be captured from the hydrogen fuel so as to effectively heat a home.

Thus, the apparatus and system of this invention provides an effective means to use alternative fuels. The use of alternative fuels can enhance the environment by reducing the use of conventional gasoline and the environmentally detrimental by-products caused by the consumption thereof.

Thus, although there have been described particular embodiments of the present invention of a new and useful "Fuel System For Internal Combustion System And Adapter For Use In Same", it is not intended that such references be construed as limitations upon the scope of this invention except as set forth in the following claims. Further, although there have been described certain dimensions used in the preferred embodiment, it is not intended that such dimensions be construed as limitations upon the scope of this invention except as set forth in the following claims.

United States Patent  6,119,651

September 19, 2000

Hydrogen Powered Vehicle, Internal Combustion Engine, and Spark Plug for use in same

Abstract --- The internal combustion engine fuel system described includes a structure for mixing the alternative fuel, preferably hydrogen, with oxygen in ambient air to stratify the fuel. The system includes an adapter, and the adapter includes a housing mounted between spark plug and cylinder of the internal combustion engine. A plug is placed within the housing. The plug has ridges or grooves on its outer surface that act as mixing structures. Thus, when hydrogen is introduced into the adapter housing it is mixed with ambient oxygen within the chamber as it flows over the plug. The mixing structures in the housing creates a vortexing action as the hydrogen flows over the plug and towards the cylinder of the engine. An electrode protrudes from the plug towards the cylinder. The electrode is preferably platinum and generates the necessary spark to create combustion of the hydrogen/air mixture adjacent to the cylinder to thereby power the cylinder in the engine. A platinum electrode is preferably used because it enhances a catalytic conversion of combustion by-products to more environmentally compatible products. The present invention also teaches a spark plug producing a hotter spark for a hydrogen fuel system. Also taught is a hydrogen powered vehicle with reduced emissions by producing a spark during the power stroke and the exhaust stroke. Methods for reducing exhaust pollution are also taught. Methods of reducing exhaust pollution by generating a plasma are taught as well.

Inventors:  Anderson; Herman P. (Brentwood, TN)
Assignee:  Herman P. Anderson Technologies, LLP

Current U.S. Class:  123/297 ; 123/635; 123/DIG.12
Current International Class:  F02M 21/02 (20060101); F02B 43/00 (20060101); F02M 057/06 ()
Field of Search:  123/3,DIG.12,527,297,636,637,635,169EL 313/120

References Cited [Referenced By]

U.S. Patent Documents

 2208030  July 1940  Holmes
 3165099  January 1965  Vanderpoel
 3926169  December 1975  Leshner et al.
 3980061  September 1976  McAlister
 4164912  August 1979  Beyler
 4186712  February 1980  Fitzner et al.
 4319552  March 1982  Sauer et al.
 4343272  August 1982  Buck
 4383198  May 1983  Hosking
 4448160  May 1984  Vosper
 4820957  April 1989  Zivkovich
 5852993  December 1998  Anderson

Foreign Patent Documents

 686943  Aug., 1930  FR

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to a fuel system for internal combustion engines that enables the invention to utilize alternative fuels; and, more particularly to an improved fuel system for an internal combustion engine and an adapter and spark plug for use in same.

The problems of air pollution caused by automobiles, lawn mowers and other vehicles that have internal combustion engines powered by gasoline is well documented. This problem is particularly described in an article in the San Diego Union Tribune, Wednesday, Sep. 25, 1996 and in Popular Science, August 1996. Indeed, under the Clean Air Act, in the next few years cars that do not run on standard fossil fuels like gasoline will be required in several states. Currently, there are no vehicles available to meet this need.

Thus, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that there has been a push to seek other fuels for use in internal combustion engines. These fuels include methane, propane and gasohol.

Hydrogen has also been characterized as a promising fuel source. See Department of Energy publication entitled "Hydrogen Fuel", printed in 1978, U.S. Government Printing Office, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Public Affairs, Washington, DC 20585. Particularly, the graph presented in FIG. 6, which is copied from this publication, shows the potential for hydrogen in BTUs/Lb. However, the mass energy density for hydrogen is low; and thus, hydrogen needs to be compressed before its energy potential can be realized. Hydrogen is a "dry fuel" that is more difficult to ignite than "wet fuels." It becomes more difficult to ignite when it is cooled. However, cooling is preferred in most systems to avoid premature ignition of the fuel. Other systems deliver the hydrogen under pressure to prevent ignition in the supply line, which is a form of pre-ignition. No prior art fuel system has been able to capture the energy of hydrogen.

Several fuel systems for use with hydrogen have been proposed. Examples are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,167,919; 4,253,428; 4,016,836; 4,178,882; 5,222,993; 5,085,176; and 5,085,176. The problem with these prior art fuel systems is they cannot take advantage of the alternative fuels to generate sufficient power from the fuels to drive an internal combustion engine for use in a lawn mower, automobile or other vehicle. As noted above, this is a particular problem when hydrogen is used as a fuel. Additionally, the prior art systems do not address the problem of back fire, i.e. undesired explosion of the fuel in the cylinder during the exhaust stroke of the internal combustion engine.

Premature ignition or backfire is often a problem with hydrogen fueled systems. U.S. Pat. No. 4,383,198 (Hosking) teaches a fuel injection spark plug with a pre-cooling chamber to avoid premature ignition indentination of a gaseous fuel supplied to the spark plug. U.S. Pat. No. 4,383,198, Hosking, entitled "Fuel Injection Spark Plug", issued May 10, 1983, is hereby incorporated herein by reference. However, cooling hydrogen makes it more difficult to ignite. This is because hydrogen is a dry fuel whereas gas is generally considered a wet fuel. Thus to reduce fuel pollution one prefers to utilize a fuel such as hydrogen and ignite it with a hotter spark.

One patent discussing very high energy (VHE) ignition systems is U.S. Pat. No. 5,207,208 issued to Ward, entitled "Integrated Convertor High Power CD Ignition", issued May 4, 1993. U.S. Pat. No. 5,207,208 is hereby incorporated herein by reference. Pat. '208 teaches very high energy ignition systems, for instance on the order of 36K volts. It teaches voltage doubling utilizing pulsating sparks of peak current on the order of two amps. While 36K volts may at times be adequate, it is preferable to achieve a higher voltage in the ignition chamber when using hydrogen.

It is known in the art to use a direct ignition system, also referred to as a distributorless ignition system, to increase the spark plug voltage. Such direct ignition systems use a "waste spark" method of spark distribution. Each cylinder is paired with its opposing cylinder in the firing order (1-4, 2-3, on a four cylinder, 1-4, 2-5, 3-6 on a V6) so that one cylinder on compression fires simultaneously with its opposing cylinder on exhaust stroke. Since the cylinder on exhaust stroke requires very little of the available voltage to fire its plug, most of the voltage is used to fire the cylinder on the compression stroke.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,462,380 discusses a distributorless ignition system. U.S. Pat. No. 4,462,380 entitled "Enhanced Spark Energy Distributorless Ignition System" issued Jul. 31, 1984 by Asik is hereby incorporated herein by reference. Pat. '380 teaches a distributorless ignition system of an internal combustion engine which has a supplementary spark energy module to increase spark energy. Each high voltage terminal is connected to a single spark plug and each ignition coil primary is alternately energized and quickly de-energized, producing opposite polarity ignition voltages at each coil terminal. As a result, pairs of spark plugs are alternately fired, with each firing pair occurring in a compression or exhaust stroke and thereby providing the proper ignition to the engine. Asik asserts that firing a spark plug does not affect engine performance or emissions. As taught by the instant invention this is incorrect for hydrogen fuels when the exhaust is sparked at a sufficient voltage.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,146,882 (Brinkman) teaches use of specific wet fuel mixtures in conjunction with direct ignition systems (D.I.S.). It teaches that technical breakdown voltages for typical spark plugs are on the order of 15-20 kV and DIS typically yield between 30 kV-40 kV. U.S. Pat. No. 5,146,882, entitled "Method And Apparatus For Cold Starting A Spark Ignited Internal Combustion Engine Fueled With An Alcohol-Based Fuel Mixture", by Brinkman, et al., issued Sep. 15, 1992, is hereby incorporated herein by reference. The previously referenced prior art discusses alternate fuels and fuel systems but does not teach a method of achieving a sufficient voltage with a hydrogen system.

What is needed, then, is a fuel system for an internal combustion engine that provides a way to generate sufficient power from the alternative fuels and that reduces backfire problems. Such a system is lacking in the prior art. Also lacking in prior art is a system utilizing alternate fuels with reduced pollution capabilities. Also lacking is a way of generating sufficient voltage spark to ignite the alternate fuel.

The following U.S. Patents discuss spark plugs designed for gas internal combustion engines to reduce radio frequency noise and interference. U.S. Pat. No. 4,224,554, entitled "Spark Plug Having A Low Noise Lever" issued to Nishio et al., Sep. 23, 1980 is hereby incorporated herein by reference. U.S. Pat. No. 4,029,990 entitled "Spark Plug Construction" issued to Nagy et al., Jun. 14, 1977 is hereby incorporated herein by reference.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for use with alternative fuels.

It is a further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for use particularly with hydrogen, and particularly to enhance the mass energy density of hydrogen.

It is an object to provide a hotter sparking plug to ignite the fuel.

It is still a further object of this invention to provide an adapter for use in a fuel system for an internal combustion engine that enhances the power obtained from the alternative fuels.

It is still a further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for an internal combustion engine that does not present the environmental hazards of a standard gasoline engine by providing reduced or zero emission of environmentally harmful gases.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for an internal combustion engine that can use an alternative fuel and can use gasoline to facilitate the transition from gasoline to alternative fuels.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for an internal combustion engine that reduces backfire problems.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide an improved fuel system for an internal combustion engine that reduces backfire problems by cooling the electrode in the spark plug with the hydrogen gas fuel.

It is an object to reduce backfire by providing hydrogen at a sufficient pressure to reduce backfire and igniting it with a hotter spark (i.e. a higher voltage).

It is still a further object of this invention to provide an adapter for use in a fuel system for an internal combustion engine that enhances the power obtained from the alternative fuels.

It is a further object to generate a plasma field in a cylinder to burn residual exhaust and reduce emissions.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide a direct injection fuel system wherein fuel is injected directly into the cylinder.

It is an object to provide a "2-fire" direct injection system, wherein the fuel is ignited during the power stroke and the exhaust stroke.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide a way to convert the standard induction fuel system of a lawnmower to a direct injection fuel system wherein fuel is injected directly into the cylinder.

It is yet a further object of this invention to provide a way to convert the indirect injection fuel system of an automobile to a direct injection fuel system wherein fuel is injected directly into the cylinder.

The internal combustion engine fuel system of this invention includes a structure for mixing the alternative fuel, preferably hydrogen, with oxygen in ambient air to stratify the fuel. The term "alternative fuels" is known in the art and is meant to refer to fuels other than conventional gasoline.

The invention in one embodiment comprises an adapter, the adapter including a housing mounted between spark plug and cylinder of the internal combustion engine. A plug is placed within the housing. The plug has ridges or grooves on its outer surface that act as mixing structures. Thus, when hydrogen is introduced into the adapter housing it is mixed with ambient oxygen within the chamber as it flows over the plug. The mixing structures on the plug create a vortexing action as the hydrogen flows over the plug and towards the cylinder of the engine.

An electrode protrudes from the plug towards the cylinder. The electrode is preferably platinum and generates the necessary spark to create combustion of the hydrogen/air mixture adjacent to the cylinder to thereby power the cylinder in the engine. A platinum electrode is preferably used because it enhances a catalytic conversion of combustion by-products to more environmentally compatible products.

Thus, the combination of the compression action generated by the conventional piston and push rod within the cylinder of the engine in conjunction with the hydrogen/air mixing structure that vortexes the hydrogen/air create compressed hydrogen that is mixed with a combustion facilitator, i.e. oxygen in the ambient air to enable the system of this invention to capture the abundant energy found in hydrogen fuel.

The enhanced mixing capabilities of this invention is also adaptable for use with other alternative fuels such as natural gas, alcohol, propane and the like.

One embodiment of the present invention is for a hydrogen powered vehicle including an internal combustion engine operably connected to power the vehicle and adapted to connect to a hydrogen supply line. The internal combustion engine comprises a cylinder operably connected to the supply line; a piston operably disposed in the cylinder; and a spark plug having an electrode assembly in operable sparking communication with the cylinder, wherein the spark plug is capable of producing a spark of at least 45 kV.

Preferably the spark plug comprises a housing having a sparking end and a hollow chamber containing the electrode assembly. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode having a connector end and a sparking end, wherein the sparking end is positioned adjacent to the housing sparking end. The electrode assembly preferably comprises a coil electrically connected to the electrode connector.

Preferably the housing comprises a fuel inlet port in fluid communication with the supply line, and an insulator surrounding the electrode assembly, wherein the insulator is positioned in the hollow chamber. Preferably the insulator comprises an outer surface defining a first fuel channel having a first respective fuel exit port, wherein the first fuel channel is in fluid communication with the fuel inlet port and the fuel exit port exits into the cylinder.

The present invention also includes a method of operating an internal combustion engine comprising supplying hydrogen fuel to the engine and creating a spark in the cylinder during the power stroke and the exhaust stroke, wherein the spark created during the power stroke is at least 45 kV. In one embodiment the spark is at least 70 kV. In certain embodiments the method comprises generating plasma during the exhaust stroke. The exhaust fuel converts to an exhaust emission and coalesces with the plasma, thereby reducing fuel pollution.

Accordingly, it is an object in the invention to provide a spark plug producing a sufficiently hot spark to ignite hydrogen fuel, including cooled hydrogen fuel.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a device for reducing fuel exhaust emissions.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a cleaner burning engine.

Another object is to provide a spark plug for reducing emissions.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a device functional with dry fuels. Use of the term hydrogen, as discussed herein, is intended to encompass such dry fuels. However the term as used excludes such wet fuels as gas and alcohol.

Another object of the present invention is to provide an integrated fuel system adapted to provide these and objectives.

Other objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent to those of skill in the art by reference to the teachings disclosed herein, including the attached drawings, detailed description of exemplary embodiments, and claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a plan view of the fuel system of this invention with a lawn mower shown in phantom.



FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the adapter of the fuel system of this invention.



FIG. 3 is an exploded perspective view of the adapter of the fuel system of this invention.



FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the adapter of the fuel system of this invention.



FIGS. 5A-5D are a schematic of the 4 cycle combustion in an internal combustion engine including the adapter of this invention.



FIG. 6 is a graph which shows the energy potential for hydrogen in BTUs/Lb.



FIG. 7 shows a vehicle of the present invention utilizing hydrogen fuel.



FIG. 8 depicts an intake stroke of a cylinder connected to a hydrogen source.



FIG. 9 depicts a compression stroke of a cylinder connected to a hydrogen source.
FIG. 10 depicts a power stroke of a cylinder connected to a hydrogen source. The spark plug shown in FIG. 10 is depicted sparking.
FIG. 11 depicts a cylinder in an exhaust stroke connected to a hydrogen source, wherein the spark plug is sparking during the exhaust stroke.

FIG. 12 shows an elevated side view of a spark plug of the present invention.



FIG. 13 shows a plan view in the direction of view line 13--13 of the spark plug shown in FIG. 12.



FIG. 14 depicts a plan view in the direction of view line 14--14 of the spark plug shown in FIG. 12.



FIG. 15 depicts an elevated side section view of the spark plug shown in FIG. 12.



FIG. 16 shows a electrode assembly which is disposed in the hollow chamber depicted in FIG. 15.



FIG. 17 shows a section view of the spark plug housing clearly showing the hollow chamber and a torridal ground electrode.



FIG. 18 depicts an elevated side view of the spark plug housing and a fuel inlet port.



FIG. 19 depicts an insulator comprising fuel channels and fuel exit ports.



FIG. 20 is a top plan view of the insulator shown in FIG. 19 viewed in the direction of view line 20--20.
FIG. 21 is a cross section view of the insulator shown in FIG. 19 along section line 21--21.
FIG. 22 is a cross section view of the insulator shown in FIG. 19 viewed in the direction of view line 22--22.
FIG. 23 is an elevated section view of the insulator shown in FIG. 19.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Referring now to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout, the fuel system is referred to generally at 10. The fuel system of this invention is contemplated for use with an internal combustion power system, such as an internal combustion engine or such as a home heating system. Fuel system 10 is portrayed in this case as connected to a standard lawn mower. The lawn mower is shown in phantom at 12 in FIG. 1. The lawn mower is a conventional lawn mower as can be purchased from a company such as Murray of Ohio. The internal combustion engine in the lawn mower is a standard 4-cycle engine with two cylinders and develops 18 horsepower. A suitable example can be purchased from Briggs & Stratton, Milwaukee, Wis. 53201.

Referring particularly to FIG. 1, system 10 includes fuel tank 14 that is mounted to lawn mower 12 via mounting assembly 15. In the preferred embodiment, fuel tank 14 includes hydrogen gas. Accordingly, for the purposes of the foregoing detailed description, hydrogen gas will be described.

A line 22 begins at fuel tank 14 and proceeds to back-flow valve 16. Back-flow valve 16 is a standard valve and is available from AirCo Gases Company, 575 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J. 07974, part no. WCS CV-4M. PSI tank gauge 19 is inserted in line 22 between back-flow valve 16 and flow pressure gauge 18. PSI tank gauge 19 is available from AirCo Gases Company also, part no. WCS CV5M, and serves as an indicator of fuel remaining in the tank 14. Flow pressure gauge 18 is used to monitor the flow of the hydrogen in pressure units. The flow is started using valve 16. The optimal flow pressure is 25 pounds of flow pressure from the tank 14 to the cylinder of the engine.

The flow of hydrogen is regulated via valve 20 that is part of gauge 18. Thus, when valve 20 is opened, hydrogen proceeds through line section 22 to hydrogen flow solenoid 26A. The user can access the hydrogen fuel by flipping hydrogen flow switch 24A into the "on" mode so that hydrogen gas in line 22 can proceed through hydrogen flow solenoid 26A and into line section 28.

Throttle 30 regulates the flow of hydrogen from line section 28 into line section 29 and ultimately, to engine 13. Throttle 30 is connected to throttle pedal 50 via includes throttle cable 48. Throttle pedal 50 also operates the butterfly valves in the carburetor in engine 13 in a conventional manner.

As an option, the throttle can be controlled electronically by a digital

fuel controller product. Such a product is commercially available from Autotronic Controls Corp., 1490 Henry Brennan Drive, El Paso, Tex. 79936.

Line portion 29 proceeds through splitter 32 and is split into upper line 34 and lower line 36. Lines 34 and 36 proceed to adapters 38. Additional back-flow prevention valves 39 and 41 are mounted between lines 34 and 36 and adapters 38. Braided Teflon.RTM. is the preferred material for the fuel lines of the system.

Battery 42 is connected via battery cable 43 to magneto 44. Magneto 44 then controls the current through spark plug lines 46 to adapters 38 in a conventional manner. Thus, the regulation of the spark that ignites the fuel in the cylinder of engine 13 is conventional. Additionally, the intake of air into the engine 13 is accomplished through the standard carburetor system of engine 13. In a car, the sparking of the spark plugs can be controlled by the standard distributor/battery ignition system.

A second solenoid 26B controls the flow of gasoline from tank 23 through gasoline line 52. Solenoid 26B is controlled by switch 24B. Throttle 30 is connected to gasoline line 52 and can also be used to control the flow of gasoline to engine 13. Thus, this invention can be used with both an alternative fuel and gasoline.

Referring now to FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, the adapter 38 of this invention is shown in more detail. Adapter 38 includes housing 60. A threaded port 62 is formed into housing 60 through port block 64. Hydrogen lines are threadably connected to the adapter 38 via port 62. Port 62 is also referred to as an entrance port. The entrance port has an entrance area 62a.

Adapter 38 also includes spark plug 66 which is effectively a standard spark plug except for the modification to the electrode as described below. Spark plug 66 includes a threaded end 68 which is threadably received in the threaded upper end 70 of housing 60. Spark plug wires 46 (as seen in FIG. 1) are connected to connector end 72 of spark plug base 66.

Electrode 76 protrudes from spark plug 66 and is of a length sufficient so that the threaded tip 77 (best seen in FIGS. 3 and 4) of the electrode 76 is proximate to the cylinder of the internal combustion engine when the adapter 38 is mounted. In one embodiment the electrode 76 is coterminus with an exit port 88 of the adapter 38. This most clearly is shown in FIG. 4. Electrode 76 is preferably platinum to enhance catalysis of combustion by-products, as will be more fully discussed below.

Adapter 38 also includes plug 79. Plug 79 includes an axial internal void space 80. Thus, plug 79 fits over electrode 76 via internal void space 80. Plug 79 preferably comprises a ceramic material that acts as a good insulator. A suitable source for ceramic plug 79 is AM/PRO Machinery, Inc. 134 Church Street, Plain City, Ohio 43064-1321.

An important aspect of this invention is found on the external surface of plug 79. An annular groove 82 is formed on the surface of plug 79 near its distal end 81 so as to be proximal to the port 62 where hydrogen enters housing 60. Two stratifying grooves 84 proceed along the surface of plug 79 until they reach its distal end 83. It is these mixing structures, i.e. annual groove 82 and stratifying grooves 84, that facilitate the improved power generation from alternative fuels as provided by this invention. It will be apparent to those skilled in the analogous arts that mixing structure may be formed in the inner surface of the adapter housing 60.

Alternatively a combination of vortex producing structures is integral with both the plug 79 and adapter housing 60. Also any conventional vortex producing means should be sufficient groves, per se, are not required.

On threaded tip 77 of electrode 76, there are mounted a spacer nut 78 and a spark gap nut 85. As best seen in FIG. 2, the spark gap nut 85 includes a protrusion 85a that provides the spark gap between electrode 76 and periphery 89 of the exit port 88 of housing 60. The exit port 88 includes an exit area 88a. Preferably, the exit area 88a is no larger than the entrance area 62a, though this is not critical. Preferably, the spark gap nut 85 is brass and the preferred spark gap distance is 25/1000 of an inch. Of course, the electrode may be coterminus with the plug distal end 83.

As best seen in FIG. 4, where arrows represent gas flow, hydrogen gas flows into chamber 60 via port 62. The hydrogen gas cools electrode 76, which facilitates combustion. Stratifying grooves 84, preferably there are two, act to mix the hydrogen that is flowing into housing 60 with ambient air therein. Though more or less vortex creating grooves (stratifying grooves) may be desired. Typically this will depend on the relative dimensions of the grooves and diameter of the plug as well as the pressure or velocity of the mixture in the housing. The mixing occurs within void space 86 of housing 60 and creates a vortexing or tornado action. Plug 79 tapers as it proceeds from its distal end 81 to its proximal end 83. Thus, proximal end 83 is smaller in diameter than distal end 81. This provides additional space within void space 86 for the mixing of the hydrogen and air. The stratified hydrogen/air are twisting in a vortex fashion when leaving housing 60 via exit port 88. The vortexing action produced by grooves 84 on the plug 79 creates a "tornado" 110 of hydrogen/air with a hollow center that generates a vacuum. Similar effect would result were t he grooves to be placed on the housing. The vacuum propels the hydrogen/air mixture into the cylinder of the engine for combustion. Such mixing cannot be accomplished in a conventional induction system.

Referring now to FIG. 5, a schematic of the system of this invention is portrayed, with arrows representing gas flow. Hydrogen flows in through port 62 through adapter 38 and into cylinder 92. Air enters cylinder 92 through air intake 90 and air intake valve 91. The stratified hydrogen/air mixture is compressed in the compression stroke of the engine via piston 94 and push rod 96, which are standard structures in an internal combustion engine. In the power stroke shown in FIG. 5-C, a spark is generated in the compressed stratified hydrogen/air mixture ignites and drives piston 94 and push rod 96 to power the engine.

The mass energy density of hydrogen is enhanced through the increased pressure on the hydrogen exerted by piston 94 on the hydrogen/air mixture within the cylinder 92 in the uptake stroke in an internal combustion engine. The pressurized and well-mixed hydrogen/air mixture is rapidly ignited through the spark because hydrogen has a fast flame front. This reduces problems with timing. Thus, the energy store found in hydrogen is captured through this system via the compression of the hydrogen gas within cylinder 92 and via the thorough mixing of hydrogen and air provided by adapter 38.

In addition, in the exhaust phase in a four cycle engine a second spark is generated from the plug to ensure complete combustion of by-products. This is enhanced by using an electrode made of platinum. Exhaust leaves cylinder 92 through exhaust port 98. Exhaust port 98 is closed during other phases by exhaust outlet valve 100.

In the exhaust stroke, because air valve 91 is closed, the substantial component of the gases in cylinder 92 is hydrogen. This is also accomplished due to the fact that in the system of this invention, the hydrogen is continuously flowing. When this spark interacts with what is predominately hydrogen, a plasma is formed. This plasma blocks back-flow of air from exhaust port 98. Prevention of back-flow of air prevents the hydrogen fuel system from backfiring, which is another common problem of hydrogen fuel systems. In effect, then, the plasma formed by the hydrogen acts as a virtual valve in that the plasma blocks the back-flow of air.

When the plasma of the hydrogen is generated as described above, UV radiation is generated which also facilitates consumption of combustion by-products. This increases the environmental friendliness of the system.

In addition to hydrogen the following fuels can be used in this system: natural gas; alcohol; gasohol; propane and buthane. A mixture of hydrogen and natural gas can also be used. As noted above, gasoline can be used in this system when solenoid 26 is used to stop the flow of hydrogen.

Further, it is contemplated that an adapter that is described herein for use with an internal combustion engine can also be used with a home heating system such as a home heating system that may currently use natural gas. The vortexing action created by the plug would enable appropriate power to be captured from the hydrogen fuel so as to effectively heat a home.

Another embodiment of the invention is a hydrogen powered vehicle 200 shown in FIG. 7. The hydrogen powered vehicle 200 includes an internal combustion engine 210 operably connected to power the vehicle 200 and adapted to connect to a hydrogen supply 212 through a supply line 214.

Referring to FIG. 8, the internal combustion engine 210 comprises a cylinder 92 operably connected to the supply line 214. A piston 94 is operably disposed in the cylinder 92. A spark plug 216 having an electrode assembly 218 (not shown in FIG. 8) is in operable sparking communication with the cylinder 92, wherein the spark plug 216 is capable of producing a spark 220 (shown in FIG. 10) of at least 45 kilovolts. FIGS. 8-11 are substantially similar to FIGS. 5A-5D depicting schematic representations of a 4-cycle piston-cylinder engine. Other piston and cylinder embodiments will be apparent to those with skill in the art. FIG. 8 represents an intake stroke. FIG. 9 depicts a compression stroke. FIG. 10 depicts a power stroke, in which the spark plug 216 sparks. FIG. 11 depicts an exhaust stroke, where the spark plug 216 is sparking. Refer to FIGS. 5A-5D discussed earlier for further description of similar components of FIGS. 8-11.

FIG. 12 shows one embodiment of the spark plug 216 in an elevated side view. FIG. 13 shows a plan view of the spark plug 216 along line 13--13 shown in FIG. 12. FIG. 14 shows a plan view of the spark plug 216 in the direction of line 14--14 shown in FIG. 12.

FIG. 15 depicts a section view of the spark plug 216. FIG. 15, section view, depicts a representative spark plug 216. The spark plug shown in FIG. 15 comprises a housing 222 having a sparking end 224 and a hollow chamber 226 containing the electrode assembly 218.

FIG. 16 depicts the electrode assembly 218 removed from the hollow chamber 226. The electrode assembly 218 depicted in FIG. 16 comprises an electrode 228. The electrode 228 has a connector end 230 and a sparking end 232. As shown in FIG. 15 the sparking end 232 of the electrode 228 is positioned adjacent to the housing sparking end 224. The electrode assembly further comprises a coil 234 electrically connected to the electrode connector end 230.

Referring to FIGS. 10 and 11, wherein the piston 94 moves through a power stroke in FIG. 10 and an exhaust stroke in FIG. 11, the spark plug 216 is shown to fire during the power stroke and the exhaust stroke.

The electrode assembly 218 shown in FIG. 16 comprises a steel ball 236 positioned between the coil 234 and the electrode connector end 230. Other operable ball-coil-electrode arrangements will be apparent to those of skill in the art.

The spark plug 216 shown in FIG. 15 also comprises an insulator 238 surrounding the electrode assembly 218 and positioned in the hollow chamber 226. A ceramic pore 240 is shown stabilizing the insulator 238 in the hollow chamber 226. Other methods of locating the insulator in the hollow chamber will be apparent to those of skill in the art.

An elevated section view of the housing 222 is shown in FIG. 17. An elevated side view of the housing 222 is shown in FIG. 18. In the exemplary embodiment of the housing 222 shown in FIG. 18, the housing 222 comprises a fuel inlet port 242 in fluid communication with the supply line 214 (not shown). FIG. 19 depicts an exemplary embodiment of the insulator 238. The insulator 238, shown in FIG. 19, comprises an outer surface 244 defining a first fuel channel 246 having a first respective fuel exit port 248. The first fuel channel 246 is in fluid communication with the fuel inlet port 242. The fuel exit port 248 exits into the cylinder 292.

FIG. 20 shows a plan view of the insulator 228 shown in FIG. 19 along line 20--20. FIG. 21 shows a section view of the insulator 228 shown in FIG. 19 viewed along section line 21--21. FIG. 22 depicts a bottom plan view of the insulator 228 shown in FIG. 19 along line 22--22. FIG. 23 shows a section view of the insulator 228 cut through section line 23--23 shown in FIG. 19.

In the embodiment of the insulator 228 shown in FIGS. 19-22, the insulator outer surface 244 defines a plurality of fuel channels 250, including the first fuel channel 246. The fuel channels 250 include a plurality of respective fuel exit ports 252, including the first fuel exit port 248. This is shown clearly in FIG. 22. Preferably, the plurality of fuel channel exit ports 252 are spaced equally, or equi-distant, about the electrode 228. This is shown well in FIGS. 21 and 22.

Referring to FIGS. 15 and 17, one embodiment of the housing 222 sparking and 224 comprises a torridal ground electrode 254 positioned about the electrode sparking end 232 (shown in FIG. 15). Preferably the housing sparking end 224 and the electrode sparking end 232 are co-terminous. In one embodiment the first respective fuel exit port 248 is co-terminous with the housing sparking end 224 and the electrode sparking end 232.

More generally the present invention includes an internal combustion engine 210 adapted to operate on hydrogen fuel supplied through a supply line 214. Typically the engine comprises a first cylinder 92 in fluid communication with the supply line 214; a first piston 94 disposed in the first cylinder 92 to move through a power stroke and an exhaust stroke (See FIGS. 10 and 11) in the first cylinder 92. The engine 210 also comprises a spark plug 216 having a housing 222 including a sparking end 224 and an electrode assembly 218 located in the housing 222, wherein the sparking end 224 is in operable communication with the cylinder 92 and capable of producing a spark 220 of at least 45 kV. Preferably, the spark plug 216 fires during the power stroke and the exhaust stroke. In one embodiment the housing sparking end 224 comprises a torridal ground electrode 254. The electrode assembly 218 comprises an electrode 228 having a sparking end 230 capable of sparking toward the torridal ground electrode 254. Preferably the electrode assembly 218 comprises a coil 234 in electrical communication with the electrode 228.

In one embodiment the electrode assembly 218 comprises an electrode 228 having a sparking end 230 and a coil 234 electrically connected to the electrode 228 opposite the electrode sparking end 230. This is the embodiment shown in FIG. 15. Typically the spark plug 216 comprises an insulator 228 surrounding the electrode assembly 218. Preferably the insulator 228 includes a fuel channel 246 having a fuel exit port 248 near the electrode sparking end 232.

It will be apparent to those with skill in the art that the present invention also comprises a method of operating an internal combustion engine 210 comprising the steps of supplying hydrogen fuel to the engine 210; moving a piston 94 in a cylinder 92 through a power stroke and an exhaust stroke; creating a spark 220 in the cylinder 92 during the power stroke and the exhaust stroke, wherein the spark created during the power stroke is at least 45 kV; and supplying the fuel to a location sufficiently near the spark to ignite the fuel. This is shown well in FIGS. 10, 15 and 19.

The present invention also includes a method wherein the step of creating a spark 220 comprises passing an electric current (not shown) through an electrode assembly 218 including a coil 234 electrically connected to an electrode 218 having a sparking end 232; insulating the electrode assembly 218; and arcing the electric current from the electrode sparking end 232 to a ground electrode 254. The ground electrode 254 as shown in FIGS. 15 and 17 a toroidal ground electrode 254.

In certain embodiments the step of creating a spark 220 includes creating a spark 220 having at least 70 kV. Creating a spark of sufficient voltage will generally reduce the exhaust pollution. Typically this happens by generating a plasma or plasma field during the exhaust stroke. Thus, one method of the present invention further comprises the steps of generating plasma during the exhaust stroke; and allowing exhaust fuel converted to an exhaust state to coalesce with the plasma. This reduces exhaust pollution.

Thus, the apparatus and system of this invention provides an effective means to use alternative fuels. The use of alternative fuels can enhance

the environment by reducing the use of conventional gasoline and the environmentally detrimental by-products caused by the consumption thereof.

Thus, although there have been described particular embodiments of the present invention of a new and useful "Hydrogen Powered Vehicle, Internal Combustion Engine, And Spark Plug For Use In Same", it is not intended that such references be construed as limitations upon the scope of this invention except as set forth in the following claims. Further, although there have been described certain dimensions used in the preferred embodiment, it is not intended that such dimensions be construed as limitations upon the scope of this invention except as set forth in the following claims.



 
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on January 05, 2013, 15:14:43 pm
 
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on October 13, 2015, 01:39:56 am










Applications

   
Information:   HotWires Thermo   hotwire physics   performance button   emissions button
The Physics Behind The Nology® Ignition Concept:


IGNITION SYSTEM DATA COMPARISON:
    Conventional Spark   Nology Spark
Temperature
Current
Power   2,500° F
0.1 Ampere
300 Watts   up to 150,000° F
up to 1,000 Amperes
up to 100,000 Watts
Note: Numbers are averages and depend on the system and ignition parts used.


Introduction:

To keep formulas easy, all calculations are based on a simple electronic inductive ignition system. However, similar results can be achieved using a points inductive or CD ignition system.

1. Conventional Inductive Ignition System

A common 12 Volt electronic ignition system, exhibits following the coil values:

Vbatt
Rp
Lp
ip
I   =
=
=
=
=   12 V
3 Ohms
10 mH
Vbatt/Rp
12V/3 Ohms   



=   



4A
{Volt}
{Ohm}
{milliHenry}
{Amperes}
    


It is assumed that the dwell is large enough to saturate the coil to full 4 Amperes before the spark occurs!

The unit for inductance L is 1 Henry (H) with the dimension:

1H=(1V * 1s)/1A         H
V
s
A   =
=
=
=
Henry
Volt
Second
Ampere


Electronic ignition systems always have a loss of voltage at the power transistor, measuring about 0.8 to 1.5 Volts. However, on vehicles with a charging system, voltage at the coil is always a little higher than 12 Volts. Therefore, we will assume that the voltage at the coil is 12 Volts.

The energy stored in the magnetic field of the ignition coil primary side (Ep) is calculated:

Ep   =   0.5 * L *i2   {V * s / A * A * A = V * s * A}
Ep   =   0.5 * 10 * 10-3*42   {V * s * A}
Ep   =   8 * 10-3   {V * A * s = Ws = J}
Ep   =   80 mWs = 80 mJ   {mWs = mJ}


When current to the ignition coil is interrupted and the magnetic field collapses, energy from the ignition coil primary side is transferred to the ignition coil secondary side. If an efficiency of 100% is assumed, Es is equivalent to Ep:

Es
Es   =
=   Ep
80 mWs = 80 mJ         
{mWs = mJ}


The unit for electrical capacitance C is 1 Farad with the dimension:

Farad with the dimension
1F=(1A * 1s)/1V         F
A
s
V   =
=
=
=
Farad
Ampere
Second
Volt


The capacitance of the ignition coil secondary side (Ccs) is dependent on the energy of the ignition coil secondary side:

Es = 0.5 * Ccs * Vi2  9  Ccs = Es * 2 / Vi2

and is calculated:

Ccs   =   Es * 2 / Vi2   (Es = Ep = 80 mWs)
Ccs   =   80 * 10-3 * 2 / (252* 106)   {V * A * s / V2}
Ccs   =   0.256 * 10-9   {A * s / V}
Ccs   =   256 * 10-12   {F}
Ccs   =   256 pF   


The voltage at the spark plug gap at time of ionization (Vi) is governed by:
Spark plug gap
Cylinder pressure
Combustion chamber temperature
Spark Plug electrode material and shape
Fuel/Air mixture


Ionization voltage is assumed to be Vi = 12,000 Volts = 12 kV, which is the case with most OEM ignition systems.

The resistance of the secondary side (Rsec) is the sum of:

1.   Rs   Resistance of secondary coil winding   about 15 K Ohms
2.   Rsr   Resistance of Rotor   about 5 K Ohms
3.   Rsw   Resisance of spark plug wire   about 15 K Ohms
4.   Rsp   Resisance of spark plug   about 5 K Ohms
and is calculated:

Rsec= Rs + Rsr + Rsw + Rsp   {V/A}
Rsec = 15 + 5 + 15 + 5   {kOhms}
Rsec = 40 k Ohms

The coil discharge time constant (c) is calculated:

c = Rs * C   {Ohms * Farad}
c = 40 * 103 * 79 * 10-12   {V / A * A * s/V}
c = 1.024 * 10-5   {s}
c = 10 µs   {microseconds}


Applying ohms law to the secondary resistance and ionization voltage, spark current (is) is calculated:

is = Vi / Rsec   (Vi = 12 kV, Rsec = 40kOhms)
is = 12 * 103/ (40*103)   {V * A / V}
is = 0.300   {A}
is = 300 mA   

The spark current of 300 mA is only available for a fraction of time, during the brake-down phase, and decreases substanctially with time (c).

For the entire spark duration, ignition spark burning voltage across spark plug gap (Vb) can be measured to about 100 Volts. Burning resistance (Rb) across the spark plug gap, for the same time, is calculated:

Rb = Vb / is   {V/A}
Rb = 100 / 0.3   {Ohms}
Rb = 333 Ohms   

Spark power (Ps) is calculated:
Ps = Vb * is   {V * A}
Ps = 100 * 0.3   {W}
Ps = 30 W   

Spark duration can be calculated out of known energy and power:

tsp = Es / Ps   {V*A*s/(V*A)}
tsp = 80 * 10-3/ 30   {s}
tsp = Es / Ps   {s}
tsp = 2.66 * 10-3   

Because of losses and efficiencies below 100%, spark current and power are less than shown. Therefore, spark duration can be claimed to be about 1.0 to 3.0 ms, depending on ignition components.

2. The Nology Ignition Concept

The following calculations demonstrate what influence a capacitor has on spark performance when installed at the secondary side of the ignition system, close to the spark plug.

A capacitance of about 50 pF is in parallel with the spark plug gap. (See diagram)

The charge in the capacitor CN is calculated:

Q = CN * V
Q = 50 * 10-12 * 12 * 103
Q = 0.6 * 10-6
Q = 0.6 µAs         [Farad * Volts]
{A*s/V*V}
{A*s}
{A*s}
 


The discharge time constant (d) is calculated:

d = R * CN
d = 333 * 50*10-12
d = 1.66 * 10-9
d = 1.66 ns         [Ohms * Farad]
{V/A*A*s/V}
{s}
 


The average spark current (is) for the first 1.66 ns is calculated using the charge and discharge time constant:

is = Q/d
is = 0.6 * 10-6/ (1.66 * 10-9)
is = 361 A         {A*s/V*V/s}
{A}
 


The resulting average spark power for the first 1.66 ns is calculated:

Ps = V * is
Ps = 100 * 361
Ps = 36,100 W             {V*A}
{W}
 


When the ionization voltage climbs to 40,000 Volts, at high engine loads (high compression racing engines, turbocharger, blower or NOS equipped engines, natural gas engines etc.), the values change to:

Charge at the Capacitor @ 40 kV

Q = 50 * 10-12 * 40 * 103
Q = 2.0 µAs         {A*s/V*V}
 


Spark Current @ 40 kV

is = 2.0 * 10-6 / (1.66 * 10-9)
is = 1205 A         {A}
 


Spark Power @ 40 kV

Ps = V * is
Ps = 100 * 1205
Ps = 120,500 W         {V*A}
{W}
 


Spark current and power are average for the first 1.66 ns., during which 66% of the energy is discharged. The remaining 34% will be completely discharged after 5 ns:

tsp = 3 *  d
tsp = 3 *1.66 ns
tsp = 5 ns

Abbreviations used in this paper:
CN   =   Capacitance of NOLOGY HotWires   {Farad}
Ccs   =   Capacitance of secondary coil   {Farad}
Ep   =   Primary energy of the ignition coil   {millijoule}
Es   =   Secondary energy of the ignition coil   {millijoule}
ip   =   Primary current of the ignition coil coil   {Ampere}
is   =   Spark current   {Ampere}
Lp   =   Primary inductance of the ignition coil   {millihenry}
Ps   =   Spark power   {millihenry}
Q   =   Charge at the NOLOGY capacitor   {Coulomb}
Rb   =   Burning resistance   {Ohm}
Rp   =   Primary resistance of the ignition coil   {Ohm}
Rs   =   Secondary resistance of the ignition coil coil   {Ohm}
Rsec   =   Total secondary resistance coil coil   {Ohm}
Rsp   =   Resistance of spark plug   {Ohm}
Rsr   =   Resistance of rotor in distributor   {Ohm}
Rsw   =   Resistance of spark plug wires   {Ohm}
tsp   =   Spark duration   {second}
c   =   Coil discharge time constant   {second}
d   =   Capacitor discharge time constant   {second}
Vb   =   Burning voltage at spark plug gap   {Volt}
Vbatt   =   Voltage at battery   {Volt}
Vi   =   Ionization voltage at spark plug gap   {Volt}

Units used in this paper:

A
C
F
H
mH
J
mJ
3
s
V
W
Ws
mWs   =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=   Ampere
Coulomb
Farad
Henry
millihenry
Joule
millijoule
Ohm
Second
Volt
Watt
Wattsecond
milliwattsecond   [Current]
[Charge]
[Capacitance]
[Inductance]
[Inductance]
[Energy]
[Energy]
[Resistance]
[Time]
[Voltage]
[Power]
[Energy]
[Energy]


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Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on October 13, 2015, 05:35:22 am
What if the added capacitor is in series with the secondary?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on October 15, 2015, 18:00:01 pm
good question electrotek

 
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on October 15, 2015, 21:31:48 pm

Ive looked into "hotwires" years ago . there is stuff on the net on hot rod and mtorbike forums , anyone can search .
I wont link, may distract from any line of thought someone has.

what if the capacitance is not grounded ???

as far as spark plug goes Im guessing it would steal voltage or have some form of feild control over the discharge.
because this is Anderson thread Im guessing this isnt about a spark plug anyway.

couldnt the capacitance also have a separate trigger circuit?

theres a source of HV capacitance and no current unless shorted
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 26, 2016, 19:48:20 pm
http://www.chem4kids.com/files/atom_neutron.html
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 26, 2016, 19:50:44 pm
 
 Chem4kids.com Home LinkChem4kids.com Sections

Neither Here nor There
Different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus can create isotopes Neutrons are the particles in an atom that have a neutral charge. They aren't positive like protons. They aren't negative like electrons. But don't start thinking that they aren't important. Every piece of an atom has huge importance to the way the atom acts and behaves. Neutrons are no exception.

So, if an atom has equal numbers of electrons and protons, the charges cancel each other out and the atom has a neutral charge. You could add a thousand neutrons into the mix and the charge would not change. However, if you add a thousand neutrons, you will be creating one super-radioactive atom. Neutrons play a major role in the mass and radioactive properties of atoms. You may have read the page on isotopes. Isotopes are created when you change the normal number of neutrons in an atom.
Inside the Nucleus
Radioactive decay releases a neutron You know that neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom. Under normal conditions, protons and neutrons stick together in the nucleus. During radioactive decay, they may be knocked out of there. Neutron numbers are able to change the mass of atoms, because they weigh about as much as a proton and electron together. If there are many atoms of an element that are isotopes, the average atomic mass for that element will change. We have spoken about carbon (C) having an average mass of 12.01. It's not much different than you would expect from an atom with 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The number of carbon isotopes doesn't change the atomic mass very much. As you move higher in the periodic table, you will find elements with many more isotopes.
One Special Element
Did we say that all atoms have neutrons? Oops. All elements have atoms with neutrons except for one. A normal hydrogen (H) atom does not have any neutrons in its tiny nucleus. That tiny little atom (the tiniest of all) has only one electron and one proton. You can take away the electron and make an ion, but you can't take away any neutrons. Hydrogen's special structure becomes very important when you learn how hydrogen interacts with other elements in the periodic table. If you learn about nuclear fusion you will learn about deuterium and tritium. Deuterium is a hydrogen atom with an extra neutron and tritium has two extra. You won't find much deuterium in your backyard. It's mainly in oceans. Don't worry if you do find it, it's not radioactive. It's a stable isotope.

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Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 26, 2016, 19:54:56 pm
Neutron Madness
Isotopes are atoms of elements with different numbers of neutrons We have already learned that ions are atoms that are either missing or have extra electrons. Let's say an atom is missing a neutron or has an extra neutron. That type of atom is called an isotope. An atom is still the same element if it is missing an electron. The same goes for isotopes. They are still the same element. They are just a little different from every other atom of the same element.

For example, there are a lot of carbon (C) atoms in the Universe. The normal ones are carbon-12. Those atoms have 6 neutrons. There are a few straggler atoms that don't have 6. Those odd ones may have 7 or even 8 neutrons. As you learn more about chemistry, you will probably hear about carbon-14. Carbon-14 actually has 8 neutrons (2 extra). C-14 is considered an isotope of the element carbon.
Messing with the Mass
If you have looked at a periodic table, you may have noticed that the atomic mass of an element is rarely an even number. That happens because of the isotopes. If you are an atom with an extra electron, it's no big deal. Electrons don't have much of a mass when compared to a neutron or proton.

Many atoms of the same element have different atomic masses Atomic masses are calculated by figuring out the amounts of each type of atom and isotope there are in the Universe. For carbon, there are a lot of C-12, a couple of C-13, and a few C-14 atoms. When you average out all of the masses, you get a number that is a little bit higher than 12 (the weight of a C-12 atom). The average atomic mass for the element is actually 12.011. Since you never really know which carbon atom you are using in calculations, you should use the average mass of an atom.

Bromine (Br), at atomic number 35, has a greater variety of isotopes. The atomic mass of bromine (Br) is 79.90. There are two main isotopes at 79 and 81, which average out to the 79.90amu value. The 79 has 44 neutrons and the 81 has 46 neutrons. While it won't change the average atomic mass, scientists have made bromine isotopes with masses from 68 to 97. It's all about the number of neutrons. As you move to higher atomic numbers in the periodic table, you will probably find even more isotopes for each element.
Returning to Normal
If we look at the C-14 atom one more time, we find that C-14 does not last forever. There is a time when it loses its extra neutrons and becomes C-12. The loss of those neutrons is called radioactive decay. That decay happens regularly like a clock. For carbon, the decay happens in a few thousand years (5,730 years). Some elements take longer, and others have a decay that happens over a period of minutes. Archeologists are able to use their knowledge of radioactive decay when they need to know the date of an object they dug up. C-14 locked in an object from several thousand years ago will decay at a certain rate. With their knowledge of chemistry, archeologists can measure how many thousands of years old an object is. This process is called carbon dating
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 26, 2016, 20:00:39 pm
Deuterium is a hydrogen atom with an extra neutron
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 26, 2016, 20:06:34 pm
When hydrogen loses its electron, the following cations can be formed:

Hydron: general name referring to the positive ion of any hydrogen isotope (H+)
Proton: 1H+ (i.e. the cation of protium)
Deuteron: 2H+, D+
Triton: 3H+, T+
In addition, the ions produced by the reaction of these cations with water as well as their hydrates are called hydrogen ions:

Hydronium ion: H3O+
Zundel cation: H5O2+ (named for Georg Zundel)
Eigen cation: H9O4+ (named for Manfred Eigen)
Zundel cations and Eigen cations play an important role in proton diffusion according to the Grotthuss mechanism.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 26, 2016, 20:09:47 pm
Neutron moderator
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.

Commonly used moderators include regular (light) water (roughly 75% of the world's reactors)
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 26, 2016, 20:13:16 pm
This suggests that a few decimeters of water is pretty efficient at moderating fast neutrons down to room temperature, but a few meters are required to completely convert thermal neutrons into gamma rays due to capture on hydrogen (energy 2 MeV). A few meters of water is pretty efficient at turning gamma rays into heat.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 26, 2016, 20:32:13 pm
Termal neutron capturing during electrolysis.

Potassium hydroxy mol has 20 neutron and 19 electrons and 19 protons.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 26, 2016, 20:46:40 pm
Or...
Neutrons Come from:
Medium neutron sources
Bremssstrahlung from Electron Accelerators / Photofission. Energetic electrons when slowed down rapidly in a heavy target emit intense gamma radiation during the deceleration process. This is known as Bremsstrahlung or braking radiation. The interaction of the gamma radiation with the target produces neutrons via the (γ,n) reaction, or the (γ,fission) reaction when a fissile target is used. e-→Pb → γ→ Pb →(γ,n) and (γ,fission). The Bremsstrahlung γ energy exceeds the binding energy of the “last” neutron in the target. A source strength of 1013 neutrons/second produced in short (i.e. < 5 μs) pulses can be readily realised.
Dense plasme focus. The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a device that is known as an efficient source of neutrons from fusion reactions. Mechanism of dense plasma focus (DPF) is based on nuclear fusion of short-lived plasma of deuterium and/or tritium. This device produces a short-lived plasma by electromagnetic compression and acceleration that is called a pinch. This plasma is during the pinch hot and dense enough to cause nuclear fusion and the emission of neutrons.
Light ion accelerators. Neutrons can be also produced by particle accelerators using targets of deuterium, tritium, lithium, beryllium, and other low-Z materials. In this case the target must be bombarded with accelerated hydrogen (H), deuterium (D), or tritium (T) nuclei.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 26, 2016, 20:57:58 pm
Potassium is a metal
Nickel is a metal

Cold cathode (Penning)
The Penning source is a low gas pressure, cold cathode ion source which utilizes crossed electric and magnetic fields. The ion source anode is at a positive potential, either dc or pulsed, with respect to the source cathode. The ion source voltage is normally between 2 and 7 kilovolts. A magnetic field, oriented parallel to the source axis, is produced by a permanent magnet. A plasma is formed along the axis of the anode which traps electrons which, in turn, ionize gas in the source. The ions are extracted through the exit cathode. Under normal operation, the ion species produced by the Penning source are over 90% molecular ions. This disadvantage is however compensated for by the other advantages of the system.
One of the cathodes is a cup made of soft iron, enclosing most of the discharge space. The bottom of the cup has a hole through which most of the generated ions are ejected by the magnetic field into the acceleration space. The soft iron shields the acceleration space from the magnetic field, to prevent a breakdown.[2]
Ions emerging from the exit cathode are accelerated through the potential difference between the exit cathode and the accelerator electrode. The schematic indicates that the exit cathode is at ground potential and the target is at high (negative) potential. This is the case in many sealed tube neutron generators. However, in cases when it is desired to deliver the maximum flux to a sample, it is desirable to operate the neutron tube with the target grounded and the source floating at high (positive) potential. The accelerator voltage is normally between 80 and 180 kilovolts.
The accelerating electrode has the shape of a long hollow cylinder. The ion beam has a slightly diverging angle (about 0.1 radian). The electrode shape and distance from target can be chosen so the entire target surface is bombarded with ions. Acceleration voltages of up to 200 kV are achievable.
The ions pass through the accelerating electrode and strike the target. When ions strike the target, 2–3 electrons per ion are produced by secondary emission. In order to prevent these secondary electrons from being accelerated back into the ion source, the accelerator electrode is biased negative with respect to the target. This voltage, called the suppressor voltage, must be at least 500 volts and may be as high as a few kilovolts. Loss of suppressor voltage will result in damage, possibly catastrophic, to the neutron tube.
Some neutron tubes incorporate an intermediate electrode, called the focus or extractor electrode, to control the size of the beam spot on the target. The gas pressure in the source is regulated by heating or cooling the gas reservoir element.

Radio frequency (RF)
Ions can be created by electrons formed in high-frequency electromagnetic field. The discharge is formed in a tube located between electrodes, or inside a coil. Over 90% proportion of atomic ions is achievable.[2]
Targets

The targets used in neutron generators are thin films of metal such as titanium, scandium, or zirconium which are deposited onto a silver, copper or molybdenum substrate. Titanium, scandium, and zirconium form stable chemical compounds called metal hydrides when combined with hydrogen or its isotopes. These metal hydrides are made up of two hydrogen (deuterium or tritium) atoms per metal atom and allow the target to have extremely high densities of hydrogen. This is important to maximize the neutron yield of the neutron tube. The gas reservoir element also uses metal hydrides, e.g. uranium hydride, as the active material.
Titanium is preferred to zirconium as it can withstand higher temperatures (200 °C), and gives higher neutron yield as it captures deuterons better than zirconium. The maximum temperature allowed for the target, above which hydrogen isotopes undergo desorption and escape the material, limits the ion current per surface unit of the target; slightly divergent beams are therefore used. A 1 microampere ion beam accelerated at 200 kV to a titanium-tritium target can generate up to 108 neutrons per second. The neutron yield is mostly determined by the accelerating voltage and the ion current level.[2]
An example of a tritium target in use is a 0.2 mm thick silver disc with a 1 micrometer layer of titanium deposited on its surface; the titanium is then saturated with tritium.[2]
Metals with sufficiently low hydrogen diffusion can be turned into deuterium targets by bombardment of deuterons until the metal is saturated. Gold targets under such condition show four times higher efficiency than titanium. Even better results can be achieved with targets made of a thin film of a high-absorption high-diffusivity metal (e.g. titanium) on a substrate with low hydrogen diffusivity (e.g. silver), as the hydrogen is then concentrated on the top layer and can not diffuse away into the bulk of the material. Using a deuterium-tritium gas mixture, self-replenishing D-T targets can be made. The neutron yield of such targets is lower than of tritium-saturated targets in deuteron beams, but their advantage is much longer lifetime and constant level of neutron production. Self-replenishing targets are also tolerant to high-temperature bake-out of the tubes, as their saturation with hydrogen isotopes is performed after the bakeout and tube sealing.[2]
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 27, 2016, 04:49:06 am
Here's something to consider...alltho we didnt get to actually see any details of Hermans "special designed ozonated water generator" we do know he used one from the interview .



http://www.google.com/patents/US3352642
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 27, 2016, 11:46:20 am
Nice findings Steve

 this was kind of the content of the courses in atomic engineerring i did and chemistry of radiations...

there are some other type of moderators,, the neutrons must be slowed so they can interact with uranium otherwise nothing happens... one could think it limit the reaction to become controlable but its not only it

A neutron is emited normaly from alpha decay and it basically decay it self within 11 minutes becoming a neutral hydrogen atom... 

when we apply ionizing radiation to water it creates tracks of ionized particles some transformation may occur,,,

the most interesting thing about potassium is that is the less electronegative chemical we can use... meaning its easy to ionize it.. make it lose an electron specially... this is why it form a hydroxide... it gives an electron to the water molecule staying in the solution as OH- and sodium ions..

one thing that is interesting in phisics is that if you get a positive charge and another not so possitive charge althought there is repeling force thes is also atraction... whenever there is diference in electronegativity among components of water it have the two forces...

so if you apply an electricfield the most electronegative will be closer to the negative electrode
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 27, 2016, 17:15:09 pm
Here's something to consider...alltho we didnt get to actually see any details of Hermans "special designed ozonated water generator" we do know he used one from the interview .



http://www.google.com/patents/US3352642

Kevin, it seems I missed that oxon generator part...
Where did you read that, or seen that?

When I ran my motorbike on hho I also experimented with ionized air on the air intake at the same time.
I can tell you that it adds value :-)
Did Herman sucked the air in thru his cell or not?

Cheers
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 27, 2016, 17:19:42 pm
Nice findings Steve

 this was kind of the content of the courses in atomic engineerring i did and chemistry of radiations...

there are some other type of moderators,, the neutrons must be slowed so they can interact with uranium otherwise nothing happens... one could think it limit the reaction to become controlable but its not only it

A neutron is emited normaly from alpha decay and it basically decay it self within 11 minutes becoming a neutral hydrogen atom... 

when we apply ionizing radiation to water it creates tracks of ionized particles some transformation may occur,,,

the most interesting thing about potassium is that is the less electronegative chemical we can use... meaning its easy to ionize it.. make it lose an electron specially... this is why it form a hydroxide... it gives an electron to the water molecule staying in the solution as OH- and sodium ions..

one thing that is interesting in phisics is that if you get a positive charge and another not so possitive charge althought there is repeling force thes is also atraction... whenever there is diference in electronegativity among components of water it have the two forces...

so if you apply an electricfield the most electronegative will be closer to the negative electrode

Fabio, I am still struggling to find out where the neutrons are coming from in Hermans setup...
I See the hydrogen ions being accelerated by the hv and soft xrays.
Any ideas on that?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 27, 2016, 17:58:54 pm
Here's something to consider...alltho we didnt get to actually see any details of Hermans "special designed ozonated water generator" we do know he used one from the interview .



http://www.google.com/patents/US3352642

Kevin, it seems I missed that oxon generator part...
Where did you read that, or seen that?

When I ran my motorbike on hho I also experimented with ionized air on the air intake at the same time.
I can tell you that it adds value :-)
Did Herman sucked the air in thru his cell or not?

Cheers

That part is near the end of his interview after the rain i think.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 27, 2016, 19:58:56 pm
any water have deuterium, i guess his source of neutrons could be the nuclear fusion of the deuterium... in my opinion if we were to control a nuclear reaction as such the power output would be proportional to a certain input in power that creates a raction with a given rate..

in my view if we have very few nuclear fusions during the combustion of excited hydrogen oxigen mixture could be enough to run the car... think of that.. .

the power output must be greater... however in fusion reactors today is not viable...


Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 27, 2016, 21:35:23 pm
Herman says in his interview the corona disharge draws the necleus of the water molecule in on it self and by the time it gets to the cathode its already into deuterium.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 28, 2016, 00:30:48 am
[/quote from Steve]
Fabio, I am still struggling to find out where the neutrons are coming from in Hermans setup...
I See the hydrogen ions being accelerated by the hv and soft xrays.
Any ideas on that?
[/quote]

Oxygen... I don't really think it cares how its structured (hydroxyl or hydroxide ect.)
Title: Re: Herman Anderson photoneutrons
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 28, 2016, 17:16:23 pm
42
The contribution to the neutron energy spectrum due to absorption of a photon of given energy by any one of these processes will be proportional to the product of the partial cross section for that process and the number of photons at that particular energy. The energy of the released neutron is obtained from the kinematics of the process and the energy of the final state. The total spectrum is obtained by summing over the possible decay modes and integrating over the photon energy. For a compound the sum is also over the constituent elements with a weighting proportional to the relative abundances.
RESULTS
Neutron energy spectra in carbon, nitrogen and oxygen were calculated for various bremsstrahlung end-point energies and, from these, tissue spectra were calculated using the tissue equivalent molecular formula C5H._01ftN. As an example of the results, the photoneutron spectrum from tissue for a photon end-point energy of 28 MeV is shown in figure 1, together with the contributions from the constituent elements. The neutron spectra from tissue over the energy range from 12-30 MeV are summarised in table 1, where average neutron energies and kerma conversion factors are displayed.
Full details of this work can be found in the published report (Allen and Chaudhri 1982).
REFERENCES
1. Allen P D, and Chaudhri M A, (1982) Phys. Med. Biol. 27:553.
2. berman B L, Fultz F C, Caldwell J T, Kelly M A, and Dietrich S S, (1970) Phys. Rev. C2:2318.
3. Caldwell J T, Bramblett R L, Berman B L, Harvey R R, and Fultz S C, (1965) Phys. Rev. Lett. 15:976.
4. Caswell R S, Coyne J J, and Randolph M L, (1980) Rad. Res. 83:217.
5. Fultz S C, Caldwell J T, Berman B L, Bramblett R L, and Harvey R R, (1966) Phys. Rev. 143:790.
6. Schiff L I, (1951) Phys. Rev. 83:252.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 28, 2016, 17:22:50 pm
X-rays are basically produced by high-energy electrons bombarding a target, especially targets that have a high proton number (Z). When bombarding electrons penetrate into the target, some electrons travel close to the nucleus due to the attraction of its positive charge and are subsequently influenced by its electric field. The course of these electrons would be deflected, and a portion or all of their kinetic energy would be lost. The principle of the conservation of energy states that in producing the X-ray photon, the electron has lost some of its kinetic energy (KE):

final KE of electron = initial KE of electron - energy of X-ray photon
The 'lost' energy is emitted as X-ray photons, specifically bremsstrahlung radiation (bremsstrahlung is German for 'braking radiation'). Bremsstrahlung can have any energy ranging from zero to the maximum KE of the bombarding electrons (i.e., 0 to Emax), depending on how much the electrons are influenced by the electric field, therefore forming a continuous spectrum. The 'peak' of the spectrum typically occurs at approximately one-third of Emax so for a bremsstrahlung spectra with an Emax value of say 120 keV, the peak of the spectrum would be at approximately 40 keV.

The intensity of bremsstrahlung radiation is proportional to the square of the atomic number of the target (Z), the number of unit charges of the bombarding particle (z) and inversely with the mass of the bombarding particle (m): Z² z / m. It follows that light particles such as electrons and positrons bombarding targets of high atomic number are more efficient producers of bremsstrahlung radiation than heavier particles such as alpha particles or neutrons (which can also cause X-rays to be produced through bremsstrahlung, though it's much more unlikely than with electrons).
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 28, 2016, 17:38:13 pm
Ok, I think I am getting a complete picture here.
Herman the ion king was real. For real, when he said that he just wanted to prove that water could work as a fuel.

The 70kv spark in the hole on the outside of his electrode had to be as thin as possible, so that the soft x rays could enter the cell and in that way to accelerate electrons and hydrogen ions and to add photons to kick neutrons off the oxygen , so the accelerated hydrogen ions could merge with the neutrons. All done in a pressurised cell.
Nickel plated iron electrodes.
70kv
Certain plate distance
Koh
20 amps 12volts
Etc
Bingo....


The last theory is done.
Now to figure out how to make it work in real life.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 29, 2016, 04:58:31 am
Horvath also talk about xrays right... for xrays to happen there also must be vaccum ... i dont know how this neutron stuf is ... what i think really meyer was doing was breaking apart some hydrogen atoms tranforming mass into energy.. he usually say that the oxygen missing electrons wouldnt allow for water to reform and so the reaction keep going until another structure is formed... i think he mean that thermoexplosive energy will result probably because of the decay of few atoms into particles with high energy in a container pressurized such as ice 

this is indeed a nice idea to investigate fusion or whatever it maybe happening..

so maybe you just need an xray tube than..   their target usualy are made of tungsten for being heat resistant,,,

Steve do you know how do you make a 100ev xray?

http://www.svpvril.com/WRadis.html
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on March 29, 2016, 05:08:20 am
Steve posted and shared the most important document maybe on the first or second page of my replication section...a study done at Stanford that perfectly explains what Herman was doin in part of his radiolysis.
Herman says if you go higher than 70kV 10 mA in his apparatus it could create another isotope (tritium) ...something we do not want to do.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 09, 2016, 14:09:08 pm
Hydrogen will appear at the cathode (the negative electrode, where electrons enter the water), and oxygen will appear at the anode (the positive electrode)

Herman spoke of the facts that the hydrogen will be release on the ANODE side and moves to the Kathode side.
As far as i understand electrolysis, on the kathode side, two hydrogen ions will merge into hydrogen molecule.

I also learned that ions of hydrogen are so tiny, that they move easy thru metal. Thats what for example a Joe cell is doing.
Now the question. What do ions do with that creapy hole in the anode?

Kevin, i assume that the electrode with that famous hidden chamber was the anode?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 10, 2016, 04:20:44 am
Best guess is yes being Herman said "that's where we split it at "
I like the other drawing with the air holes better tho...that Stanford study that you posted is by far the most revielling  study I have ever seen....I have tried several times short of calling Mr.Ricketts at MTSU to get a full length unedited copy of that that interview without success....I emailed him again last week with no reply yet.
You will notice at the end of this link he mentions using a hydrogen enrichment add on way back in 08....it would be interesting to at least learn the details of the generator he and his students used.Mr.Ricketts is the man that interviewed Herman on the portion we bought from James....I still get upset that after all these years we still haven't seen that whole interview,just like with Stans tapes we only get bits and pieces of...I really don't even like thinking about that...it aggravates me that people that have all of those tapes are so damn scared if the rest of us had a look at it we might get it finished first.....
All we can do is take what information we have ,let it take us to things not mentioned and figure it out ourselves.
There is nothing or nobody on these forums can do more or better than the universities and corporations can and have already done in terms of hydrogen....this is all suppose to be for fun and sharing,something to do rather than bar hop and nothing or what ever.....why is that we still haven't seen but bits and pieces of certain tapes and interviews is beyond me!!!!!!


http://cem.mtsu.edu/k-12/presenter/dr-cliff-ricketts

I just watched the webcast Mr.Rickets had with some students explaining his coast to coast trip....wasn't exactly what I was expecting ...the electrolysis unit appeared to just be a single pipe cell and he keeps calling the anode negative and the cathode positive so idnt know if he just misspoke or tries to fuel an argument but either way he hasn't answered none of my emails.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 10, 2016, 21:00:28 pm
What makes me think why James and who ever else worked with Hermans original electrodes failed to keep it going,is the thin layer left had worn out and burnt thru...this is how it looked on the inside of one electrode.I tried to draw the jagged edges as it appeared....
I believe the Stanford study is the most important discovery made in the realms of our type of research.I think if we are going to give this an honest go we must perform that expieriment.
My inductor wire wire will be here in the morning and im most excited about that atm.
Herman may have needed the specific 70kV for a specific thickness of the electrode in our little chamber.
I don't have a trifield meter or what ever we will need to measure the milli-Roetgen/hour radiation.....
We know Herman used at least 2 applications of radiation.
We know Herman used "2/ 35kV coils wired in series for 70kV."
We know Herman used series resonance  "it amplify's the current"
We know Herman used a magnetic field.
We know Herman used on demand ozonated water.
We know Herman used KOH with a pH of 12.
We know Herman used a standing pipe to circulate the water.
We know Herman used fog to slow the burn rate.

Have you seen these equations yet?
http://www.accelinstruments.com/Applications/WaveformAmp/Magnetic-Field-Generator.html

lf in addition to a steady magnetic field, varying fields with frequency components in the neighborhood of the Larmor precession frequency are present, the nuclear magnetic moment may be caused to change its orientation by a resonance effect. lf the frequency of an applied oscillating magnetic field, which is oriented at right angles to the direction of the static magnetic field, matches that corresponding to the difference in energy between adjacent orientations according to the rule, Plancks constant times the frequency equals the energy jump, then the transition will occur. lf the match is not close, transitions will be very unlikely.

For example, when a magnetic field of strength 1,826 gauss is applied to a sample of water, the protons which form the hydrogen l nuclei have only two possible orientations with respect to the field. The parallel orientation has the least Steady magnetic field strength Plancks constant For protons this gives 4,250 X magnetic field strength in gauss, or to take the example above 4,250Xl,826=7.76 megacycles per second.At this field strength it takes 5x10(-20) ergs to excite the antiparallel state. Since the magnetic field at each proton is not exactly the same, the resonance will occur in a narrow band of frequencies centered on 7.76 megacycles. The resonance line width, which is the measure of this band width, depends on the inhomogeneities in the applied field, as well as those arising from the internal structure ofthe material.

Except when they are under the influence of a magnetic field the magnetic moments of the protons of hydrogen are in random orientation for before the field is applied, the parallel and antiparallel positions of the nuclei are no different in energy and equally likely to occur. Upon application of the field, the protons snap into line with substantially half parallel and the remainder antiparallel, but this is not a stable condition in the field, because with the field applied, the antiparallel state of the proton has a higher energy, and hence tends to emit this energy difference and drop to the lower parallel state. This tendency is counteracted by thermal motion, which gives rise to field components at the resonant frequency, and hence to transitions up and down between the two states. As a result, an equilibrium is established at any given temperature where there is a slight excess occupation of parallel states compared with antiparallel states. This equilibrium condition is not, however, attained the instant the magnetic field is switched on, but rather'is approached according to a characteristic time known as the thermal relaxation time.
The hydrogen nuclei (protons) in pure water at room temperature have a relatively long relaxation time (about 2 seconds)
The rate at which energy is absorbed from the RF coil depends on the rate at which excited nuclei are deexcited.

 https://www.google.com/patents/US4706030

https://www.google.com/patents/US5461265

An oscillating magnetic field of radio frequency is simultaneously produced.
 If the oscillating magnetic field is tuned to a frequency corresponding to the proton nuclear Larmor precession frequency , radio frequency energy will be absorbed and scattered. As energy is absorbed, the distribution between parallel and antiparallel states is altered.
lf the DC or steady magnetic field is modulated by superimposing upon it a fluctuating magnetic field, the protons of the hydrogen present may be caused to attain the resonant condition periodically.
The intensity of the magnetic resonance effect whether it be observed as nuclear absorption, nuclear dispersion .or nuclear induction, depends on the relaxation time, since the maximum intensity observed is that at which the number of protons being excited by the magnetic oscillations equals the number being deexcited by the relaxation effect.
 
There should be a small phase or amplitude unbalance signal present at resonance. If amplitude unbalance is used, absorption is displayed. If phase unbalance is used, phase-shift or dispersion curve is displayed on the oscilloscope.

with this picture below....you have now seen the inside of Hermans anode.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 11, 2016, 09:08:26 am
i hate that rickets....

Maybe u can try to get some contact with him too?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 11, 2016, 09:10:02 am
the inside drawng shows a bad spot or so? What is that?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 11, 2016, 13:51:05 pm
Maybe these are more clear
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 11, 2016, 18:24:40 pm
Maybe these are more clear

Ahaaaaa  :) ;) ;D
Thanks Kevin......
Its just a bold on top of a hole, welded...

Steve
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 11, 2016, 18:28:15 pm
What makes me think why James and who ever else worked with Hermans original electrodes failed to keep it going,is the thin layer left had worn out and burnt thru...this is how it looked on the inside of one electrode.I tried to draw the jagged edges as it appeared....
I believe the Stanford study is the most important discovery made in the realms of our type of research.I think if we are going to give this an honest go we must perform that expieriment.
My inductor wire wire will be here in the morning and im most excited about that atm.
Herman may have needed the specific 70kV for a specific thickness of the electrode in our little chamber.
I don't have a trifield meter or what ever we will need to measure the milli-Roetgen/hour radiation.....
We know Herman used at least 2 applications of radiation.
We know Herman used "2/ 35kV coils wired in series for 70kV."
We know Herman used series resonance  "it amplify's the current"
We know Herman used a magnetic field.
We know Herman used on demand ozonated water.
We know Herman used KOH with a pH of 12.
We know Herman used a standing pipe to circulate the water.
We know Herman used fog to slow the burn rate.

Have you seen these equations yet?
http://www.accelinstruments.com/Applications/WaveformAmp/Magnetic-Field-Generator.html

lf in addition to a steady magnetic field, varying fields with frequency components in the neighborhood of the Larmor precession frequency are present, the nuclear magnetic moment may be caused to change its orientation by a resonance effect. lf the frequency of an applied oscillating magnetic field, which is oriented at right angles to the direction of the static magnetic field, matches that corresponding to the difference in energy between adjacent orientations according to the rule, Plancks constant times the frequency equals the energy jump, then the transition will occur. lf the match is not close, transitions will be very unlikely.

For example, when a magnetic field of strength 1,826 gauss is applied to a sample of water, the protons which form the hydrogen l nuclei have only two possible orientations with respect to the field. The parallel orientation has the least Steady magnetic field strength Plancks constant For protons this gives 4,250 X magnetic field strength in gauss, or to take the example above 4,250Xl,826=7.76 megacycles per second.At this field strength it takes 5x10(-20) ergs to excite the antiparallel state. Since the magnetic field at each proton is not exactly the same, the resonance will occur in a narrow band of frequencies centered on 7.76 megacycles. The resonance line width, which is the measure of this band width, depends on the inhomogeneities in the applied field, as well as those arising from the internal structure ofthe material.

Except when they are under the influence of a magnetic field the magnetic moments of the protons of hydrogen are in random orientation for before the field is applied, the parallel and antiparallel positions of the nuclei are no different in energy and equally likely to occur. Upon application of the field, the protons snap into line with substantially half parallel and the remainder antiparallel, but this is not a stable condition in the field, because with the field applied, the antiparallel state of the proton has a higher energy, and hence tends to emit this energy difference and drop to the lower parallel state. This tendency is counteracted by thermal motion, which gives rise to field components at the resonant frequency, and hence to transitions up and down between the two states. As a result, an equilibrium is established at any given temperature where there is a slight excess occupation of parallel states compared with antiparallel states. This equilibrium condition is not, however, attained the instant the magnetic field is switched on, but rather'is approached according to a characteristic time known as the thermal relaxation time.
The hydrogen nuclei (protons) in pure water at room temperature have a relatively long relaxation time (about 2 seconds)
The rate at which energy is absorbed from the RF coil depends on the rate at which excited nuclei are deexcited.

 https://www.google.com/patents/US4706030

https://www.google.com/patents/US5461265

An oscillating magnetic field of radio frequency is simultaneously produced.
 If the oscillating magnetic field is tuned to a frequency corresponding to the proton nuclear Larmor precession frequency , radio frequency energy will be absorbed and scattered. As energy is absorbed, the distribution between parallel and antiparallel states is altered.
lf the DC or steady magnetic field is modulated by superimposing upon it a fluctuating magnetic field, the protons of the hydrogen present may be caused to attain the resonant condition periodically.
The intensity of the magnetic resonance effect whether it be observed as nuclear absorption, nuclear dispersion .or nuclear induction, depends on the relaxation time, since the maximum intensity observed is that at which the number of protons being excited by the magnetic oscillations equals the number being deexcited by the relaxation effect.
 
There should be a small phase or amplitude unbalance signal present at resonance. If amplitude unbalance is used, absorption is displayed. If phase unbalance is used, phase-shift or dispersion curve is displayed on the oscilloscope.

with this picture below....you have now seen the inside of Hermans anode.

That might the reason why it wouldnt work. If it is broken.....
Still, the function of that hole is a mistery. But i am very very glad that you shared that info, Kevin!!!
I really mean it.

cheers!
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 11, 2016, 18:40:48 pm
ohhhh shit....
Sometimes, i even surprise myself. :P

https://publications.lbl.gov/islandora/object/ir%3A150171/datastream/PDF/view

The hole in the electrode had to do with the neutrons....
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 11, 2016, 18:45:15 pm
and now you ask how the hydrogen ions are getting in that sealed hole...
"Hydrogen ions are small enough to pass through the crystalline steel"
Thats also called embrittlement of metal by hydrogen.

That gives us: hydrogen ions in a hole, with RF plasma beams etc etc, see previous post.

That Anderson was a genius!
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on April 12, 2016, 05:40:15 am
I cant agree with the usage of the hole...i dont think the hole is suppose to be there....i think its there as a result of using the electrode as an ion source and it simply got used up.I think if you can imagine an arrangement where air is used as the ion source (referring to the Standford study) the electrode may be less used up and last longer,the air hole should provide stress relief from the thinned out layer of the electrode as well.
Once you have the standing pipe arranged,cell preasure ,along with air being supplie atop the cell will circulate the cell water and help keep the chamber from over heating.
Another thing ive not seen mentioned is the pressure atop the standing pipe...you should build it and check that out.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 04, 2016, 09:44:33 am
Dear Kevin,


One other question for you.
Did the cell of Herman had a separator for oxygen and hydrogen in there?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 05, 2016, 02:27:53 am
Not that Im aware of...Herman did say you couldnt have one between the plates but up there referring to above the water line.
The top that Herman used has a baffle in it....there also was a huge hose going in pushing something thru the top (air,fog..??)
If he had some kind of slosh prevente it would have been on the outgoing side under the baffle part of thst top.
James did say that the cell after removing from the car had been leaking...the KOH had found its way out and had formed solid crystal like stuff streaming down...like a cave thing :)
Id bout bet he had some kind of slosh protector in the top .
My personal opinion and wat im fixing is a gas output from the standing pipe.The hole in the top of mine will be plugged and used only to add more KOH.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 05, 2016, 10:20:28 am
i read somewere that Anderson was venting the oxygen into the cars interieur.....
Was is that right?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 07, 2016, 08:25:43 am
i read somewere that Anderson was venting the oxygen into the cars interieur.....
Was is that right?

He mentioned it in the interview but it seemed like it was just something he was considering or hoping.with the top he had on it there would be no way.the top he had on his cell was part of a kitchen sink plumbing part....check it out at walmart or wherever....there was no way he was seperating the gas with that top....pluss he used a speciality designed, pressurized  ozonated water generator.
You can ozonate water to the point of looking like a cloud and steaming.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 07, 2016, 08:34:47 am
I think it shouldnt be much longer till we completely understand the magnetics of his system....ive watched his interview so much to almost memorizing everything he said.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 07, 2016, 10:43:19 am
i read somewere that Anderson was venting the oxygen into the cars interieur.....
Was is that right?

He mentioned it in the interview but it seemed like it was just something he was considering or hoping.with the top he had on it there would be no way.the top he had on his cell was part of a kitchen sink plumbing part....check it out at walmart or wherever....there was no way he was seperating the gas with that top....pluss he used a speciality designed, pressurized  ozonated water generator.
You can ozonate water to the point of looking like a cloud and steaming.

Yes. He said that in the interview.
Funny that you said that you almost know every word from that interview. Same here....
The shitty thing is that parts of that interview are soooo difficult to hear and to understand.
Specially if english is not the native language, as dutch is my native  one.
To come back to the topic:
Might it be that Herman said that he was blowing the warm air from the cell cooling system into the interieur?

cheers
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 07, 2016, 11:21:54 am
I think it shouldnt be much longer till we completely understand the magnetics of his system....ive watched his interview so much to almost memorizing everything he said.

If you combine all info from that interview and also the Horvarth patents we might understand a little bit more on what is going on.
Remember that Herman speaks of using a positive magnetic field to push the hydrogen trhu the waterbath as being very important part of the system.
Also the explanation of that old engineer at the end of the video is also important, Kevin.

I tell you why. Now its important to know what happens when you use a sparkgap with a coil.
You can find a lot of info on that in the Horvarth patents.
When air gets ionized in a sparkgap, a high current starts to flow into the transformer of Horvarth, creating a hugh magnetic field.
The field force is described in that patent!!!!!! Unbelievable.

Back to sweet Herman. He mentions the use of corona wire.
He used a round cylinder as cell.Combine that with the info of the other man wrapping sparkplug wire around his cell.
One and one = two.
Herman used corona wire around his cell to creat 2 effects.
1. radiolysis by emf fields
2. magnetic field for pushing the monotomic hydrogen
Corona wire with a sparkgap, probably below the cell.

Cheers






Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 07, 2016, 16:18:55 pm
3 of the most important statements he made were :
1)"You have to get your magnetics just right.If you get them to close it will just roll around in there and not do anything"
2)" I had them make me 2 and wire them together"
3) "magnetically "
#3 is the most interesting. ...he was asked if he had high voltage hidden inside his chamber,his answer was "magnetically "


notice He also says, "you wont"  as to say that part must have been a difficult part for the man.
He later says stuff about the wires in there and corona discharge.
The interview is just chopped up so much we just have to try to understand and build it however it will work.
He also in that answer says " as fast as the electricity" to say the magnetics is an electromagnet.
You can see the glitch in the tape soon after.... edited.
I think i can at least turn the electrodes into strong eough magnets now so I guess im gonna break out all that stuff now and try to work on it some...ill share everything i do and see how it goes...is anyone else going to start sharing anything with this?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 10, 2016, 14:10:17 pm
Ks, look at my drawings.
Circuits with such a large scr are used to switch heavy currents. Herman did 12v and 20 amps...
If he wasnt switchting the 12v off during hv pulses he would have used a diode......


cheers
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 10, 2016, 14:48:04 pm

7.5 cycles per second = 7.5Hertz
If the pulse is a 50% duty cycle, then during the off time of the duty cycle, you have enough time to pulse some HV pulses in the cell.

It takes 10 to 15 milliseconds for the magnetic field to reach maximum strength for ignition coils...
Herman wanted 70KV, so he needed that well build up magnetic field.

So, here is the math:
13ms = 75hz.
It means that during the off periode of the 7.5hz cycle, Herman could pump 5 till 6 HV pulses into the cell.

cheers


Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 10, 2016, 21:25:15 pm
That doesn't make any sence tho and here is why....
It takes an external magnetic field to put the spins of the proton into resonance....that means that under the influence of a magnetic field  the protons spin will align with the magnetic field.(required)
What I know is that it takes a field strength of 1826 gauss field for the protons in a glass of water to align.You know what it takes when the net magnetic field increases due to alignment.
What I know is that the required magnetic field is different depending on what the proton is bonded to(hydrocarbon,tissue ect,) but I know what it takes for protons in just a glass of water so I start there.
When the protons are in resonance....(aligned with the magnetic field,the spins will be paralle) its possible to flip the spin of every other proton into a higher energy state with a COMBINED RF pulse.That RF pulse has to match the lamar frequency of the proton (4250 x magnetic field - that means { measure your magnetic field }and {mutilply it by 4250} to find the lamar frequency) We know this because when the RF pulse is switched off the induced spin flip decays to normal and emits RF energy...with feedback or what ever its detectable and that's how they know what the frequency is.
The way it seems is that since the RF pulse flips the spin into a higher energy state we want the energy to go high enough so that the lower energy state will be the product we looking for.....
I don't understand it all and am not claiming to but with the limited understanding I have I know there is an exchange of energy going on to do what Herman was doing and I know there must be a specific process to get it done.
It takes 2 seconds for the protons to align in the magnetic field and be ready for the RF pulse...it takes a magnetic field and a certain RF frequency for the protons to accept the RF pulse ...
I cant see how how pulsing each sepperatly will have any affect
One thing is for certain tho...
Herman said if his plates were to close it would just roll around like a tornado and not do anything.How do we know our distane is right if we cant create the tornado?
I think if we cant at least create the tornado then we are missing something.
Its the same thing with Stans...untill they can create the ribbon ( double tornado??) Then they are missing something.
We know how the tornado is created  ( electric fields superimposed with magnetic fields )
This in part my theory of paralles of voltage and magnetism comes from.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 18, 2016, 02:11:05 am
have you seen the tornado and the difference in speed?
I can demonstrate both but....Id really like to hear a couple thoughts of at least the tornadoe effect....
Its not what i was expecting :)
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 18, 2016, 07:47:23 am
please show us!
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 18, 2016, 07:53:56 am
Its 2am here...ill go out and video it at day break.Id like to here some thoughts or expectations ....its a baby step and not im sure this configuration is the simplest yet but i think its correct....the thing is its not what i was expecting BUT  it fits Hermans description perfectly i believe at least with the tornado.
It dont seem to work if i change the electrodes polarity so....its a baby step.
What i can demonstrate are those 2 effects...the tornado and increase in gas production.
My test rig power supply is only 1 amp at 15 volts but it demonstrates i do believe :)

Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 18, 2016, 21:36:41 pm
here's the EXAMPLE...its not perfect and not complete but its configuration is proving.
Its not very easy getting a video of it because it happens in the middle of the cell..all I have is tap water and table salt for now and it gets nasty really fast..watch and rewatch it....you'll notice its easier to see at the right of the cell.
Its really not a good video of it... ill keep trying and share a better view.
Its a baby step .
What its showing me is there must be a north and south pole or it doesn't work.
Im betting somebody can tell me  what the secret is with that.
Its better if you go to youtube and watch it full screen.

feature=youtu.be
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 18, 2016, 23:19:14 pm
Here's a picture of it.
The trick is ...this is just the negative electrode.... the anode is laying in the bottom of the bucket about 3 inches from the bottom of that electrode.
It doesn't work bypassing  coils... just hooking the power up straight to the electrodes( + in the bottom of the bucket, - on the horseshoe electrode)
The coils put a + and - pole on the negative electrode.
Its almost confusing but there is a positive pole on one side of that electrode.
The inductor(s) is one coil in reality just half of it wound in the opposite direction.
One end of the coil hooks to the electrode(either side),the other end of the coil goes to ground.
without the coils hooked up it just barely bakes any bubbles at all the electrodes
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 19, 2016, 00:50:02 am
pretty interesting.. if i understood right it is exactly what have thought about recently about propagating the magnetic flux to the cell..

i like to see how those bubbles get attracted to the distant electrode..

Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 19, 2016, 02:11:02 am
pretty interesting.. if i understood right it is exactly what have thought about recently about propagating the magnetic flux to the cell..

i like to see how those bubbles get attracted to the distant electrode..

Those bigger bubbles going to the left coming from the anode at the bottom....i wanted to be able to vary the distance but it didnt work out with that cell.
Soon as i can get some good water ill figure out a few things.
the main thing I learn from this is what it takes to make it " roll around in there "
It is interesting tho how both sides of that cell are going to ground that those particular bubbles are attracted to the thinner electrode.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 19, 2016, 04:09:28 am
What im wandering is if the same effect happens with the coils off of the electrode...know wat i mean?
It would be like with the tube cell wire the 2 tubes together to in effect create 1 electrode with a gap between it...add another or sit them 2 on top of a metal disk with an insulator between them and use the bottom disc as the anode.
Hook your charging chokes up together (one opposite wound to the other) one lead to the tubes and the other lead to ground.
The disk underneath is the positive.
What i think in Hermans case to try is use really heave gauge wire and air core....next test :)
Herman.....hmmmm......instead of hooking one end of the coil directly.....ive got to think about this a minute.Ive had this thing for nearly 10 years,maybe ill get to fire it up :) part# 29625(67,000V)




Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 19, 2016, 07:55:42 am
i would suggest you to try a smaller device... rain water with an electrolyte that is magnetic

i think your gap is very wide...
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 19, 2016, 08:19:09 am
i would suggest you to try a smaller device... rain water with an electrolyte that is magnetic

i think your gap is very wide...
With this system my gap is 2 small.Hermans gap was 3 inches.That was in part a thing with that test...Herman said if your gap was to small it would roll around in there like a tornado and not do anything....basically that's what I was showing...it was rolling around in there and not making any gas.Maybe a bigger point was getting it to roll around in there ;)
The view in my video was looking straight down into the top of it.
It actually makes me want to go back and look into W.I.T. water ion technologies.Ther gap was 18  inches.They however did play a role in deciding to go with a thicker electrode on one end.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 19, 2016, 08:27:09 am
Wait till this thing fires up again :)
In the spirit of Herman Anderson.... doing it just to prove it will work :)
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 19, 2016, 20:34:18 pm
here's the EXAMPLE...its not perfect and not complete but its configuration is proving.
Its not very easy getting a video of it because it happens in the middle of the cell..all I have is tap water and table salt for now and it gets nasty really fast..watch and rewatch it....you'll notice its easier to see at the right of the cell.
Its really not a good video of it... ill keep trying and share a better view.
Its a baby step .
What its showing me is there must be a north and south pole or it doesn't work.
Im betting somebody can tell me  what the secret is with that.
Its better if you go to youtube and watch it full screen.

feature=youtu.be
does it make sence how one side of that is acting like an anode and maybe what the devider he is talking about?
It wouldn't surprise me if Herman had some kind of metal screen close to the top.....
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 22, 2016, 12:22:27 pm
how about this one?

Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 24, 2016, 07:35:34 am
what i'd like to see is something without a pernament magnet envolved....there is no pernament magnet in my video.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 26, 2016, 21:45:20 pm
This double negative electrode is becoming more apparent now that I know its possible....a nickle plated anode will not survive an electrolysis proccess.....i guess nothing but a stainless steel ANODE will survive...everything else gets eat away.
Im not convinced Herman used a stainless steel anode unless that was part of the interview we didnt get to see.
Im asking for ideas or information about the use of ANODE's that do not get eat away.
I have a couple of ideas but only one that uses a replaceable anode being that there actually is one place where inserting an anode wouldnt be that difficult in Hermans system.
Its the ONLY way i can see charging electrodes to 70kV without causing a blow up.
when using electrolyte it does not matter where you put the anode as long as its in the water.... hydrogen will be made at the negative electrode/s.
I do not understand looking at Hermans interview why the standing pipe top has that melted like indention on the cap.
hers a nice read

http://www.intechopen.com/books/electrolysis/water-electrolysis-with-inductive-voltage-pulses
Title: Re: Herman Anderson picturr
Post by: Login to see usernames on January 21, 2017, 08:57:56 am
the younger Herman...
Title: The water window is a region of the electromagnetic spectrum in which water is..
Post by: Login to see usernames on August 14, 2019, 09:29:49 am
Soft X-rays are electromagnetic radiation with wavelength in the range of 0.12 nm to 5nm (or 5 millionths of a millimeter). This range of “light” lies between UV (like the light from a tanning bed) and Hard X-rays (which you might receive at the dentist’s office).

Photons in this range of the electromagnetic spectrum have energies of 250eV to 10,000eV.

Due to the inherently short wavelength of the soft X-ray, one is able to use this “light” to see extremely small features and to make minute features.

Within the soft X-ray regime, there is a region called the “water window” (2.32-4.36nm) in which the “light” passes through water, but is absorbed by Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulphur. In this region brilliant images of biological materials can be capture that are unavailable with other techniques.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on August 14, 2019, 09:54:26 am
The 3 cm distance between the two electrodes matches nicely with the 3nm wave lenght...
Standing waves.......
Title: Re: Herman Anderson;s Standing waves
Post by: Login to see usernames on May 13, 2021, 17:25:39 pm
For standing waves with both ends fixed in a length L, the wavelength l is limited to (where n is an integer)
   l =        ;   n = 1, 2, 3, ….

In quantum mechanics, electrons in atoms are treated as standing waves confined by the electric field due to the atomic nuclei. Thus, the electrons are represented by wave functions.
The wave, energy etc are called state of the electron, and with spin, each state accommodate 2 electrons. A state is called an orbital (not orbit)
Title: Re: Herman Anderson Related Video
Post by: Login to see usernames on May 13, 2021, 19:02:00 pm
standing wave interactions  of  plasma in small aqueous water and  hydrogel cavities

related video

wave length related to media that microwave pasa through. are collapsing nano plasmoids involve in Meyer proocess??

regards
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on May 14, 2021, 07:55:30 am
That could be one of meyers wfc,s.
Ill gues the bal type cell comes close to that.
His brother mentioned the sparks once....
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on May 14, 2021, 17:10:37 pm
The water fuel injectors could be a form of wave guide..  The tapered electrode  gap  may  be functioning as a wave  guide as well as a resonant
cavity resulting in the plasma causing thermal/and molecular destruction of the injected water, and gases with the release of "GNT"  energy.
As  ions revert  to lowered energy states, the water and gases are going to a lowered energy state with the release of  the differences in bond
energy being released as GNT

In the case of the  vertical tubular  array devices, the spacing between the anode and cathode is different  from the injector device because the
resonance distance for  liquid water is different than the gases and water vapor being mixed prior to plasmolysis in the injectors.
Within a cavity, the index of refraction will depend upon the material through which the waves are traveling. The wavelength and
frequency need to be tuned to the physical dimensions of the cavity(s) for the resonance and standing wave of the plasma to occur.
The indices of refraction vary with the wavelength of thee light ,x-ray or microwave used
Some investigators have mentioned a blue or orange glow during their experiments with the Meyer technologies....

The Spherical cavity,  the Vertical Tubular Array and Fuel Injectors all have in common the need for adjusting the frequencies
pumping the electrons to higher levels and using electron extraction to destabilize the atomic structures to form a more stable
energy state. With hydrogen,  the electron is stripped out and not permitted to reform by being "consumed" by an electron
well such as an incandescent bulb or heating element.  With the oxygen atom, as its electrons forced into higher electron orbital
states, the electrons are further away from the positive nucleus, and can be more easily plucked off  by the electron
extraction process.  Eventually the electrostatic attraction between the hydrogen and oxygen becomes so weak that the
water molecule breaks apart and reforms as the H2 and O2 gases which are then burned as fuel

regards
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on May 16, 2021, 11:57:44 am
So, the next question is about the rest of the indoor unit of Herman.
I heard that there was a somekind of airblower in ....
Anybody any comments on that?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on May 20, 2021, 09:27:13 am
Anybody?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 07, 2021, 19:23:23 pm
That airblower is a tricky subject. If you're blowing Plasmoid, you're going to get voids, because of the surface tension.  Old school has it that, with a scalar Field's penetrating presence, dark energy will form across the voids.  (Like a surface shadow).  So this will add a little extra expansion.

And I was thinking about what he said about his waveform being a cross between a box and a triangle.  What if a square wave ended with a triangle going on up?
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 08, 2021, 11:45:05 am
That the waveform changed because of the waterfuelcell is proven...

Thanks for yr thoughts on the airblower, Tek.

Ill send you a pm today...
Need your view on something...

Cheers!
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 13, 2021, 12:18:45 pm
It looks like that most of the members are hanging backwards......... ;)
I know that this technology is one of the long breath....

We need builders. I need an engine....
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 14, 2021, 01:29:06 am
Good point about the engine, Steve.  But I'm wondering how safe it would be to discharge heavy water vapor into the atmosphere.  Can we use radiolysis at a lower, non fusion voltage?

I recently picked up a professional Geiger counter.  I may get back to my C/O fusion tests.  This might also produce radiolysis, and perhaps thermal dissociation.  Hopefully, no deuterium.  (Even if that has more energy than H).
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 14, 2021, 04:35:35 am

1
The fusion neutron yield from a laser-irradiated heavy-water (D2O) spray target was studied. Heavy-water droplets of about 150nm diameter in the spray were exposed to 35fs laser pulses at an intensity of 1×1019W/cm2. Due to the 10–50 times bigger size of the spray droplets compared to usual cluster sizes, deuterons are accelerated to considerably higher kinetic energies of up to 1MeV. Neutrons are generated by the deuterons escaping from the plasma and initiating a fusion reaction within the surrounding cold plume of the spray jet. For each 0.6J of laser pulse energy, 6×103 neutrons are produced by about 1011 accelerated deuterons. This corresponds to a D(d,n) reaction probability of about 6×10−8. Compared to cluster targets, the reaction probability in the spray target is found to be two orders of magnitude larger. This finding apparently is due to both the considerably higher deuteron energies and the larger effective target thickness in the spray target. The measured neutron yield per accelerated deuteron [i.e., the D(d,n) reaction probability], is employed to compare and extrapolate the neutron emission characteristics from different target arrangements.

IT APPEARS THAT HEAVY WATER RELEASES NEUTRONS WHEN EXPOSED T  LASER ENERGY

 2 in the e-cat process by the Italian inventor Rossi an increase in Copper was reported in the nickel powders utilized

3 in the environmental tape by Meyer  he mentions the  remediation of radioactive waste

Question is the gINT mentioned by Meyer actually  a Mizuno or LENR process?



Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 14, 2021, 19:29:19 pm
Meyer's effect had nothing to do with the e-cat.  That one used a special isotope of Nickle which can convert to Copper.  This isotope does not occur in nature and must be manufactured.  Meyer found that when an Oxygen nucleus experiences an impact in the presence of an electron extraction field, the nucleus itself emits a beta electron.  This causes the Oxygen to decay to the next higher element.  There's no evidence he was using this with the dune buggy.  One drawing of his Injector does show a dielectric ring at the output, perhaps to facilitate a Z-pinch.  However, to use this effect, the Injector spark would need to be aimed across the top of the Piston, rather than AT the Piston.  Meyer may have had some kind of LENR technique, but he wasn't using it inside an engine.  But this doesn't mean it can't be used to produce excess hydroxy gas, for subsequent injection.
Title: Re: Herman Anderson
Post by: Login to see usernames on June 26, 2021, 23:23:14 pm
Hey guys D2O has nothing to do with H2O, D2O has deuterium instead of hydrogen and is very hard to make, deuterium has a neutron while hydrogen has no neutron, deuterium doesn't like the neutron and will give it to be in a lower energy or more stable state.