Author Topic: Herman Anderson  (Read 19517 times)

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Re: Herman Anderson
« Reply #16 on: March 26, 2016, 20:57:58 pm »
Potassium is a metal
Nickel is a metal

Cold cathode (Penning)
The Penning source is a low gas pressure, cold cathode ion source which utilizes crossed electric and magnetic fields. The ion source anode is at a positive potential, either dc or pulsed, with respect to the source cathode. The ion source voltage is normally between 2 and 7 kilovolts. A magnetic field, oriented parallel to the source axis, is produced by a permanent magnet. A plasma is formed along the axis of the anode which traps electrons which, in turn, ionize gas in the source. The ions are extracted through the exit cathode. Under normal operation, the ion species produced by the Penning source are over 90% molecular ions. This disadvantage is however compensated for by the other advantages of the system.
One of the cathodes is a cup made of soft iron, enclosing most of the discharge space. The bottom of the cup has a hole through which most of the generated ions are ejected by the magnetic field into the acceleration space. The soft iron shields the acceleration space from the magnetic field, to prevent a breakdown.[2]
Ions emerging from the exit cathode are accelerated through the potential difference between the exit cathode and the accelerator electrode. The schematic indicates that the exit cathode is at ground potential and the target is at high (negative) potential. This is the case in many sealed tube neutron generators. However, in cases when it is desired to deliver the maximum flux to a sample, it is desirable to operate the neutron tube with the target grounded and the source floating at high (positive) potential. The accelerator voltage is normally between 80 and 180 kilovolts.
The accelerating electrode has the shape of a long hollow cylinder. The ion beam has a slightly diverging angle (about 0.1 radian). The electrode shape and distance from target can be chosen so the entire target surface is bombarded with ions. Acceleration voltages of up to 200 kV are achievable.
The ions pass through the accelerating electrode and strike the target. When ions strike the target, 2–3 electrons per ion are produced by secondary emission. In order to prevent these secondary electrons from being accelerated back into the ion source, the accelerator electrode is biased negative with respect to the target. This voltage, called the suppressor voltage, must be at least 500 volts and may be as high as a few kilovolts. Loss of suppressor voltage will result in damage, possibly catastrophic, to the neutron tube.
Some neutron tubes incorporate an intermediate electrode, called the focus or extractor electrode, to control the size of the beam spot on the target. The gas pressure in the source is regulated by heating or cooling the gas reservoir element.

Radio frequency (RF)
Ions can be created by electrons formed in high-frequency electromagnetic field. The discharge is formed in a tube located between electrodes, or inside a coil. Over 90% proportion of atomic ions is achievable.[2]
Targets

The targets used in neutron generators are thin films of metal such as titanium, scandium, or zirconium which are deposited onto a silver, copper or molybdenum substrate. Titanium, scandium, and zirconium form stable chemical compounds called metal hydrides when combined with hydrogen or its isotopes. These metal hydrides are made up of two hydrogen (deuterium or tritium) atoms per metal atom and allow the target to have extremely high densities of hydrogen. This is important to maximize the neutron yield of the neutron tube. The gas reservoir element also uses metal hydrides, e.g. uranium hydride, as the active material.
Titanium is preferred to zirconium as it can withstand higher temperatures (200 °C), and gives higher neutron yield as it captures deuterons better than zirconium. The maximum temperature allowed for the target, above which hydrogen isotopes undergo desorption and escape the material, limits the ion current per surface unit of the target; slightly divergent beams are therefore used. A 1 microampere ion beam accelerated at 200 kV to a titanium-tritium target can generate up to 108 neutrons per second. The neutron yield is mostly determined by the accelerating voltage and the ion current level.[2]
An example of a tritium target in use is a 0.2 mm thick silver disc with a 1 micrometer layer of titanium deposited on its surface; the titanium is then saturated with tritium.[2]
Metals with sufficiently low hydrogen diffusion can be turned into deuterium targets by bombardment of deuterons until the metal is saturated. Gold targets under such condition show four times higher efficiency than titanium. Even better results can be achieved with targets made of a thin film of a high-absorption high-diffusivity metal (e.g. titanium) on a substrate with low hydrogen diffusivity (e.g. silver), as the hydrogen is then concentrated on the top layer and can not diffuse away into the bulk of the material. Using a deuterium-tritium gas mixture, self-replenishing D-T targets can be made. The neutron yield of such targets is lower than of tritium-saturated targets in deuteron beams, but their advantage is much longer lifetime and constant level of neutron production. Self-replenishing targets are also tolerant to high-temperature bake-out of the tubes, as their saturation with hydrogen isotopes is performed after the bakeout and tube sealing.[2]

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Re: Herman Anderson
« Reply #17 on: March 27, 2016, 04:49:06 am »
Here's something to consider...alltho we didnt get to actually see any details of Hermans "special designed ozonated water generator" we do know he used one from the interview .



http://www.google.com/patents/US3352642

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Re: Herman Anderson
« Reply #18 on: March 27, 2016, 11:46:20 am »
Nice findings Steve

 this was kind of the content of the courses in atomic engineerring i did and chemistry of radiations...

there are some other type of moderators,, the neutrons must be slowed so they can interact with uranium otherwise nothing happens... one could think it limit the reaction to become controlable but its not only it

A neutron is emited normaly from alpha decay and it basically decay it self within 11 minutes becoming a neutral hydrogen atom... 

when we apply ionizing radiation to water it creates tracks of ionized particles some transformation may occur,,,

the most interesting thing about potassium is that is the less electronegative chemical we can use... meaning its easy to ionize it.. make it lose an electron specially... this is why it form a hydroxide... it gives an electron to the water molecule staying in the solution as OH- and sodium ions..

one thing that is interesting in phisics is that if you get a positive charge and another not so possitive charge althought there is repeling force thes is also atraction... whenever there is diference in electronegativity among components of water it have the two forces...

so if you apply an electricfield the most electronegative will be closer to the negative electrode

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Re: Herman Anderson
« Reply #19 on: March 27, 2016, 17:15:09 pm »
Here's something to consider...alltho we didnt get to actually see any details of Hermans "special designed ozonated water generator" we do know he used one from the interview .



http://www.google.com/patents/US3352642

Kevin, it seems I missed that oxon generator part...
Where did you read that, or seen that?

When I ran my motorbike on hho I also experimented with ionized air on the air intake at the same time.
I can tell you that it adds value :-)
Did Herman sucked the air in thru his cell or not?

Cheers

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Re: Herman Anderson
« Reply #20 on: March 27, 2016, 17:19:42 pm »
Nice findings Steve

 this was kind of the content of the courses in atomic engineerring i did and chemistry of radiations...

there are some other type of moderators,, the neutrons must be slowed so they can interact with uranium otherwise nothing happens... one could think it limit the reaction to become controlable but its not only it

A neutron is emited normaly from alpha decay and it basically decay it self within 11 minutes becoming a neutral hydrogen atom... 

when we apply ionizing radiation to water it creates tracks of ionized particles some transformation may occur,,,

the most interesting thing about potassium is that is the less electronegative chemical we can use... meaning its easy to ionize it.. make it lose an electron specially... this is why it form a hydroxide... it gives an electron to the water molecule staying in the solution as OH- and sodium ions..

one thing that is interesting in phisics is that if you get a positive charge and another not so possitive charge althought there is repeling force thes is also atraction... whenever there is diference in electronegativity among components of water it have the two forces...

so if you apply an electricfield the most electronegative will be closer to the negative electrode

Fabio, I am still struggling to find out where the neutrons are coming from in Hermans setup...
I See the hydrogen ions being accelerated by the hv and soft xrays.
Any ideas on that?

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Re: Herman Anderson
« Reply #21 on: March 27, 2016, 17:58:54 pm »
Here's something to consider...alltho we didnt get to actually see any details of Hermans "special designed ozonated water generator" we do know he used one from the interview .



http://www.google.com/patents/US3352642

Kevin, it seems I missed that oxon generator part...
Where did you read that, or seen that?

When I ran my motorbike on hho I also experimented with ionized air on the air intake at the same time.
I can tell you that it adds value :-)
Did Herman sucked the air in thru his cell or not?

Cheers

That part is near the end of his interview after the rain i think.

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Re: Herman Anderson
« Reply #22 on: March 27, 2016, 19:58:56 pm »
any water have deuterium, i guess his source of neutrons could be the nuclear fusion of the deuterium... in my opinion if we were to control a nuclear reaction as such the power output would be proportional to a certain input in power that creates a raction with a given rate..

in my view if we have very few nuclear fusions during the combustion of excited hydrogen oxigen mixture could be enough to run the car... think of that.. .

the power output must be greater... however in fusion reactors today is not viable...



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Re: Herman Anderson
« Reply #23 on: March 27, 2016, 21:35:23 pm »
Herman says in his interview the corona disharge draws the necleus of the water molecule in on it self and by the time it gets to the cathode its already into deuterium.